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Remote Sens. 2019, 11(5), 493;

Aggregated Deep Local Features for Remote Sensing Image Retrieval

Video Coding and Architectures Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 28 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Image Retrieval in Remote Sensing)
PDF [6085 KB, uploaded 28 February 2019]


Remote Sensing Image Retrieval remains a challenging topic due to the special nature of Remote Sensing imagery. Such images contain various different semantic objects, which clearly complicates the retrieval task. In this paper, we present an image retrieval pipeline that uses attentive, local convolutional features and aggregates them using the Vector of Locally Aggregated Descriptors (VLAD) to produce a global descriptor. We study various system parameters such as the multiplicative and additive attention mechanisms and descriptor dimensionality. We propose a query expansion method that requires no external inputs. Experiments demonstrate that even without training, the local convolutional features and global representation outperform other systems. After system tuning, we can achieve state-of-the-art or competitive results. Furthermore, we observe that our query expansion method increases overall system performance by about 3%, using only the top-three retrieved images. Finally, we show how dimensionality reduction produces compact descriptors with increased retrieval performance and fast retrieval computation times, e.g., 50% faster than the current systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: image retrieval; convolutional descriptor; query expansion; descriptor aggregation; Convolutional Neural Networks image retrieval; convolutional descriptor; query expansion; descriptor aggregation; Convolutional Neural Networks

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Imbriaco, R.; Sebastian, C.; Bondarev, E.; de With, P.H.N. Aggregated Deep Local Features for Remote Sensing Image Retrieval. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 493.

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