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Open AccessArticle

Climate Data Records from Meteosat First Generation Part II: Retrieval of the In-Flight Visible Spectral Response

1
FastOpt GmbH, Lerchenstr. 28a, 22767 Hamburg, Germany
2
Rayference, 1030 Brussels, Belgium
3
EUMETSAT, Eumetsat Allee 1, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(5), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11050480
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 8 February 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 26 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Quality and Usability of Climate Data Records)
How can the in-flight spectral response functions of a series of decades-old broad band radiometers in Space be retrieved post-flight? This question is the key to developing Climate Data Records from the Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager on board the Meteosat First Generation (MFG) of geostationary satellites, which acquired Earth radiance images in the Visible (VIS) broad band from 1977 to 2017. This article presents a new metrologically sound method for retrieving the VIS spectral response from matchups of pseudo-invariant calibration site (PICS) pixels with datasets of simulated top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance used as reference. Calibration sites include bright desert, open ocean and deep convective cloud targets. The absolute instrument spectral response function is decomposed into generalised Bernstein basis polynomials and a degradation function that is based on plain physical considerations and able to represent typical chromatic ageing characteristics. Retrieval uncertainties are specified in terms of an error covariance matrix, which is projected from model parameter space into the spectral response function domain and range. The retrieval method considers target type-specific biases due to errors in, e.g., the selection of PICS target pixels and the spectral radiance simulation explicitly. It has been tested with artificial and well-comprehended observational data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager on-board Meteosat Second Generation and has retrieved meaningful results for all MFG satellites apart from Meteosat-1, which was not available for analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Climate Data Record; Fundamental Climate Data Record; instrument spectral response function; instrument degradation; Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager (MVIRI); uncertainty propagation; metrology; algorithmic differentiation; Earth Observation; remote sensing Climate Data Record; Fundamental Climate Data Record; instrument spectral response function; instrument degradation; Meteosat Visible and Infrared Imager (MVIRI); uncertainty propagation; metrology; algorithmic differentiation; Earth Observation; remote sensing
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Quast, R.; Giering, R.; Govaerts, Y.; Rüthrich, F.; Roebeling, R. Climate Data Records from Meteosat First Generation Part II: Retrieval of the In-Flight Visible Spectral Response. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 480.

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