Next Article in Journal
Editorial for Special Issue “Remote Sensing of Precipitation”
Previous Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Filtering and Noise Analysis for Regional GNSS Network in Antarctica Using Independent Component Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Comparative Assessment of Different Modeling Algorithms for Estimating Leaf Nitrogen Content in Winter Wheat Using Multispectral Images from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Article Menu
Issue 4 (February-2) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(4), 387;

Predicting Rice Grain Yield Based on Dynamic Changes in Vegetation Indexes during Early to Mid-Growth Stages

National Engineering and Technology Center for Information Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Crop System Analysis and Decision Making, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Information Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 1 Weigang Road, Nanjing 210095, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 12 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Precision Nitrogen Management)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5825 KB, uploaded 14 February 2019]   |  


Predicting the grain yield during early to mid-growth stages is important for initial diagnosis of rice and quantitative regulation of topdressing. In this study, we conducted four experiments using different nitrogen (N) application rates (0–400 kg N∙ha−1) in three Japonica rice cultivars (Wuyunjing24, Ningjing4, and Lianjing7) grown in Jiangsu province, Eastern China, from 2015–2016. Spectral reflectance data were collected multiple times during early to mid-growth stages using an active mounted sensor (RapidScan CS-45, Holland Scientific Inc., Lincoln, NE, USA). Data were then used to calculate optimal vegetation indexes (normalized difference red edge, NDRE; normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI; ratio vegetation index, RVI; red-edge ratio vegetation index, RERVI), which were used to develop a dynamic change model and in-season grain yield prediction model. The NDRE index was more stable than other indexes (NDVI, RVI, RERVI), showing less standard deviation at the same N fertilizer rate. The R2 of the relationships between leaf area index (LAI), plant nitrogen accumulation (PNA), and NDRE also increased compared to other indexes. These findings suggest that NDRE is suitable for analysis of paddy rice N nutrition. According to real-time series changes in NDRE, the resulting dynamic model followed a sigmoid curve, with a coefficient of determination (R2) >0.9 and relative root-mean-square error <5%. Moreover, the feature platform value (saturation value, SV) of the NDRE-based model accurately predicted the differences between treatments and the final grain yield levels. R2 values of the relationship between SV and yield were >0.7. For every 0.1 increase in SV, grain yield increased by 3608.1 kg·ha−1. Overall, our new dynamic model effectively predicted grain yield at stem elongation and booting stages, providing real-time crop N nutrition data for management of N fertilizer topdressing in rice production. View Full-Text
Keywords: red-edge; NDRE; dynamic change model; sigmoid curve; grain yield prediction red-edge; NDRE; dynamic change model; sigmoid curve; grain yield prediction

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, K.; Ge, X.; Shen, P.; Li, W.; Liu, X.; Cao, Q.; Zhu, Y.; Cao, W.; Tian, Y. Predicting Rice Grain Yield Based on Dynamic Changes in Vegetation Indexes during Early to Mid-Growth Stages. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 387.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top