Hyperspectral image (HSI) super-resolution (SR) is of great application value and has attracted broad attention. The hyperspectral single image super-resolution (HSISR) task is correspondingly difficult in SR due to the unavailability of auxiliary high resolution images. To tackle this challenging task, different from the existing learning-based HSISR algorithms, in this paper we propose a novel framework, i.e., a 1D–2D attentional convolutional neural network, which employs a separation strategy to extract the spatial–spectral information and then fuse them gradually. More specifically, our network consists of two streams: a spatial one and a spectral one. The spectral one is mainly composed of the 1D convolution to encode a small change in the spectrum, while the 2D convolution, cooperating with the attention mechanism, is used in the spatial pathway to encode spatial information. Furthermore, a novel hierarchical side connection strategy is proposed for effectively fusing spectral and spatial information. Compared with the typical 3D convolutional neural network (CNN), the 1D–2D CNN is easier to train with less parameters. More importantly, our proposed framework can not only present a perfect solution for the HSISR problem, but also explore the potential in hyperspectral pansharpening. The experiments over widely used benchmarks on SISR and hyperspectral pansharpening demonstrate that the proposed method could outperform other state-of-the-art methods, both in visual quality and quantity measurements.
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