The Antarctic and Arctic have always been critical areas of earth science research and are sensitive to global climate change. Global climate change exhibits diversity characteristics on both temporal and spatial scales. Since the Moon-based earth observation platform could provide large-scale, multi-angle, and long-term measurements complementary to the satellite-based Earth observation data, it is necessary to study the observation characteristics of this new platform. With deepening understanding of Moon-based observations, we have seen its good observation ability in the middle and low latitudes of the Earth’s surface, but for polar regions, we need to further study the observation characteristics of this platform. Based on the above objectives, we used the Moon-based Earth observation geometric model to quantify the geometric relationship between the Sun, Moon, and Earth. Assuming the sensor is at the center of the nearside of the Moon, the coverage characteristics of the earth feature points are counted. The observation intervals, access frequency, and the angle information of each point during 100 years were obtained, and the variation rule was analyzed. The research showed that the lunar platform could carry out ideal observations for the polar regions. For the North and South poles, a continuous observation duration of 14.5 days could be obtained, and as the latitude decreased, the duration time was reduced to less than one day at the latitude of 65° in each hemisphere. The dominant observation time of the North Pole is concentrated from mid-March to mid-September, and for the South Pole, it is the rest of the year, and as the latitude decreases, it extends outward from both sides. The annual coverage time and frequency will change with the relationship between the Moon and the Earth. This study also proves that the Moon-based observation has multi-angle observation advantages for the Arctic and the Antarctic areas, which can help better understand large-scale geoscientific phenomena. The above findings indicate that the Moon-based observation can be applied as a new type of remote sensing technology to the observation field of the Earth’s polar regions.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited