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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Lunar Calibration for ASTER VNIR and TIR with Observations of the Moon in 2003 and 2017

Artificial Intelligence Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-4-7 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
Research and Development Division, Japan Space Systems, 3-5-8 Shibakoen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0011, Japan
Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 7, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8567, Japan
Department of Information Science and Technology, Aichi Prefectural University, 1522-3 Ibaragabasama, Nagaute, Aichi 480-1198, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(22), 2712;
Received: 21 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 17 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue ASTER 20th Anniversary)
The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), which is a multiband pushbroom sensor suite onboard Terra, has successfully provided valuable multiband images for approximately 20 years since Terra’s launch in 1999. Since the launch, sensitivity degradations in ASTER’s visible and near infrared (VNIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands have been monitored and corrected with various calibration methods. However, a unignorable discrepancy between different calibration methods has been confirmed for the VNIR bands that should be assessed with another reliable calibration method. In April 2003 and August 2017, ASTER observed the Moon (and deepspace) for conducting a radiometric calibration (called as lunar calibration), which can measure the temporal variation in the sensor sensitivity of the VNIR bands enough accurately (better than 1%). From the lunar calibration, 3–6% sensitivity degradations were confirmed in the VNIR bands from 2003 to 2017. Since the measured degradations from the other methods showed different trends from the lunar calibration, the lunar calibration suggests a further improvement is needed for the VNIR calibration. Sensitivity degradations in the TIR bands were also confirmed by monitoring the variation in the number of saturated pixels, which were qualitatively consistent with the onboard and vicarious calibrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: ASTER; lunar calibration; radiometric calibration; VNIR; TIR ASTER; lunar calibration; radiometric calibration; VNIR; TIR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kouyama, T.; Kato, S.; Kikuchi, M.; Sakuma, F.; Miura, A.; Tachikawa, T.; Tsuchida, S.; Obata, K.; Nakamura, R. Lunar Calibration for ASTER VNIR and TIR with Observations of the Moon in 2003 and 2017. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2712.

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