The high-resolution nighttime light (NTL) data of the LuoJia1-01 NTL remote sensing satellite has enriched the available data of NTL remote sensing applications. The radiance calibration used as a reference to convert the digital number (DN) recorded by the nighttime sensor into the radiance of the corresponding ground object is the basic premise to the effective application of the NTL data. Owing to the lack of on-board calibration equipment and the absence of an absolute radiometric calibration light source at night, it is difficult for LuoJia1-01 to carry out on-orbit radiance calibration. The moon, as an exoatmospheric stable radiation source, is widely used for the radiometric calibration of remote sensing satellite sensors and to monitor the stability of the visible and near-infrared sensors. This study, based on lunar observation of the LuoJia1-01 NTL sensor, focused on on-orbit radiometric calibration and included monitoring changes in the nighttime sensor radiometric response for nearly a year by using the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) lunar irradiance model (Version 311 g). The results showed that: (1) the consistency of the radiometric calibration results based on the ROLO model and the laboratory calibration results of LuoJia1-01 exceeded 90%; (2) the nighttime sensor of LuoJia1-01 radiometric response underwent approximately 6% degradation during the observation period of nearly one year (353 days).
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