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Open AccessArticle

KLUM: An Urban VNIR and SWIR Spectral Library Consisting of Building Materials

1
Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (IPF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2
Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182149
Received: 5 July 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 15 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hyperspectral Imagery for Urban Environment)
Knowledge about the existing materials in urban areas has, in recent times, increased in importance. With the use of imaging spectroscopy and hyperspectral remote sensing techniques, it is possible to measure and collect the spectra of urban materials. Most spectral libraries consist of either spectra acquired indoors in a controlled lab environment or of spectra from afar using airborne systems accompanied with in situ measurements. Furthermore, most publicly available spectral libraries have, so far, not focused on facade materials but on roofing materials, roads, and pavements. In this study, we present an urban spectral library consisting of collected in situ material spectra with imaging spectroscopy techniques in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral range, with particular focus on facade materials and material variation. The spectral library consists of building materials, such as facade and roofing materials, in addition to surrounding ground material, but with a focus on facades. This novelty is beneficial to the community as there is a shift to oblique-viewed Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based remote sensing and thus, there is a need for new types of spectral libraries. The post-processing consists partly of an intra-set solar irradiance correction and recalculation of reference spectra caused by signal clipping. Furthermore, the clustering of the acquired spectra was performed and evaluated using spectral measures, including Spectral Angle and a modified Spectral Gradient Angle. To confirm and compare the material classes, we used samples from publicly available spectral libraries. The final material classification scheme is based on a hierarchy with subclasses, which enables a spectral library with a larger material variation and offers the possibility to perform a more refined material analysis. The analysis reveals that the color and the surface structure, texture or coating of a material plays a significantly larger role than what has been presented so far. The samples and their corresponding detailed metadata can be found in the Karlsruhe Library of Urban Materials (KLUM) archive. View Full-Text
Keywords: spectral library; urban materials; spectroscopy; building facades; VNIR; SWIR spectral library; urban materials; spectroscopy; building facades; VNIR; SWIR
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  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Link: https://github.com/rebeccailehag/KLUM_library
    Description: Karlsruhe Library of Urban Materials (KLUM) - the spectral library that contains the material samples and the relevant metadata
MDPI and ACS Style

Ilehag, R.; Schenk, A.; Huang, Y.; Hinz, S. KLUM: An Urban VNIR and SWIR Spectral Library Consisting of Building Materials. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182149

AMA Style

Ilehag R, Schenk A, Huang Y, Hinz S. KLUM: An Urban VNIR and SWIR Spectral Library Consisting of Building Materials. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(18):2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ilehag, Rebecca; Schenk, Andreas; Huang, Yilin; Hinz, Stefan. 2019. "KLUM: An Urban VNIR and SWIR Spectral Library Consisting of Building Materials" Remote Sens. 11, no. 18: 2149. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182149

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