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Article

Microphysical Characteristics of Three Convective Events with Intense Rainfall Observed by Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer in Eastern China

1
Key Laboratory for Mesoscale Severe Weather/MOE and School of Atmospheric Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210003, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather and Joint Center for Atmospheric Radar Research of CMA/NJU, Beijing 100081, China
3
School of Meteorology and Advanced Radar Research Center, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73072, USA
4
NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory, Norman, OK 73072, USA
5
National Center for Atmospheric Research#, Boulder, CO 80305, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172004
Received: 23 July 2019 / Revised: 21 August 2019 / Accepted: 22 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radar Polarimetry—Applications in Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere)
Polarimetric radar and disdrometer observations obtained during the 2014 Observation, Prediction, and Analysis of Severe Convection of China (OPACC) field campaign are used in this study to investigate the microphysical characteristics of three primary types of organized intense rainfall events (meiyu rainband, typhoon outer rainband, and squall line) in eastern China. Drop size distributions (DSDs) of these three events on the ground are derived from measurements of a surface disdrometer, while the corresponding three-dimensional microphysical structures are obtained from the Nanjing University C-band polarimetric radar (NJU-CPOL). Although the environmental moisture and instability conditions are different, all three events possess relatively high freezing level favorable for warm-rain processes where the high medium to small raindrop concentration at low levels is consistent with the high surface rainfall rates. Convection is tallest in the squall line where abundant ice-phase processes generate large amounts of rimed particles (graupel and hail) above the freezing level and the largest surface raindrops are present among these three events. The storm tops of both the typhoon and meiyu rainbands are lower than that in the squall line, composed of less active ice processes above the freezing level. The typhoon rainrate is more intense than that of meiyu, enhanced by higher coalescence efficiency. A revised generalized intercept parameter versus mass-weighted mean diameter (Nw-Dm) space diagram is constructed to describe the DSD distributions over the three events and illustrate the relative DSD positions for heavy precipitation. DSDs of these intense rainfall convections observed in this midlatitude region of eastern Asia somewhat represent the typical DSD characteristics in low latitudes, suggesting that the parameterization of microphysical characteristics in eastern China in numerical models needs to be further investigated to improve rain fall forecasts in these heavy rainfall events. View Full-Text
Keywords: microphysical characteristics; convective events; intense rainfall; eastern China microphysical characteristics; convective events; intense rainfall; eastern China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, G.; Zhao, K.; Wen, L.; Wang, M.; Huang, H.; Wang, M.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, P.; Lee, W.-C. Microphysical Characteristics of Three Convective Events with Intense Rainfall Observed by Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer in Eastern China. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172004

AMA Style

Chen G, Zhao K, Wen L, Wang M, Huang H, Wang M, Yang Z, Zhang G, Zhang P, Lee W-C. Microphysical Characteristics of Three Convective Events with Intense Rainfall Observed by Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer in Eastern China. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(17):2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Gang, Kun Zhao, Long Wen, Mengyao Wang, Hao Huang, Mingjun Wang, Zhengwei Yang, Guifu Zhang, Pengfei Zhang, and Wen-Chau Lee. 2019. "Microphysical Characteristics of Three Convective Events with Intense Rainfall Observed by Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer in Eastern China" Remote Sensing 11, no. 17: 2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11172004

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