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Quantification of Hydrocarbon Abundance in Soils Using Deep Learning with Dropout and Hyperspectral Data

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Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University London, London SW15 3DW, UK
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Khalifa University Center for Autonomous Robotic Systems (KUCARS), Khalifa University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 127788 Abu Dhabi, UAE
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School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus Plymouth Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1938; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161938
Received: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 16 August 2019 / Published: 19 August 2019
Terrestrial hydrocarbon spills have the potential to cause significant soil degradation across large areas. Identification and remedial measures taken at an early stage are therefore important. Reflectance spectroscopy is a rapid remote sensing method that has proven capable of characterizing hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. In this paper, we develop a deep learning approach to estimate the amount of Hydrocarbon (HC) mixed with different soil samples using a three-term backpropagation algorithm with dropout. The dropout was used to avoid overfitting and reduce computational complexity. A Hyspex SWIR 384 m camera measured the reflectance of the samples obtained by mixing and homogenizing four different soil types with four different HC substances, respectively. The datasets were fed into the proposed deep learning neural network to quantify the amount of HCs in each dataset. Individual validation of all the dataset shows excellent prediction estimation of the HC content with an average mean square error of ~2.2 × 10−4. The results with remote sensed data captured by an airborne system validate the approach. This demonstrates that a deep learning approach coupled with hyperspectral imaging techniques can be used for rapid identification and estimation of HCs in soils, which could be useful in estimating the quantity of HC spills at an early stage. View Full-Text
Keywords: spectral unmixing; deep learning; dropout; hydrocarbons; three-term backpropagation spectral unmixing; deep learning; dropout; hydrocarbons; three-term backpropagation
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Ahmed, A.M.; Duran, O.; Zweiri, Y.; Smith, M. Quantification of Hydrocarbon Abundance in Soils Using Deep Learning with Dropout and Hyperspectral Data. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1938.

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