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Open AccessArticle

ADDTID: An Alternative Tool for Studying Earthquake/Tsunami Signatures in the Ionosphere. Case of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

1
Department of Signal Theory and Communications, TALP, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
2
Department of Mathematics, IonSAT, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
3
IEEC-CTE-CRAE, Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161894
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
In this work, we characterized the ionospheric disturbances generated during the Japan Tohoku earthquake of 11 March 2011, by means of the Atomic Decomposition Detector of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (ADDTID) algorithm. This algorithm automatically detects and characterizes Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements. Applying the high-precision estimates of ADDTID, the propagation parameters would make it easier to distinguish TIDs from different origins, in particular the characteristics conforming the acoustic gravity waves driven by the earthquake/tsunami. This method does not assume that disturbances follow a circular pattern of propagation, and can estimate the location by the propagation pattern of tsunami wavefronts and related TIDs. In this work, we present in a single framework a description of phenomena observed by different researchers. By means of the ADDTID algorithm, we detect: (a) simultaneous TIDs of different characteristics, where the detection was robust against the curvature of the wave fronts of the perturbations and the accuracy of the estimated parameters. The results were double-checked by visual inspection from detrended Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) maps and keogram plots, and the parameters of the slow-speed TIDs were consistent with the tsunami waveform measurements; (b) different wavefronts between the west and east TIDs around the epicenter, consistent in time and space with the post-earthquake tsunami; (c) complete evolution of the circular TIDs driven by the tsunami during the GNSS observable area; (d) fast and short circular TIDs related to the acoustic waves of earthquake; (e) the pre-seismic activity consisting of a set of fast westward TIDs, and the comparison with neighboring days; (f) the location estimation of the tsunami wavefront along the coast and the possible use as early warning. Finally, we report disturbances that had not been previously published with a possible application to local and real-time detection of tsunamis. View Full-Text
Keywords: traveling ionospheric disturbances; ADDTID algorithm; anisotropic propagation of disturbances; GNSS receiver network; earthquake/tsunami traveling ionospheric disturbances; ADDTID algorithm; anisotropic propagation of disturbances; GNSS receiver network; earthquake/tsunami
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Yang, H.; Monte Moreno, E.; Hernández-Pajares, M. ADDTID: An Alternative Tool for Studying Earthquake/Tsunami Signatures in the Ionosphere. Case of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1894.

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