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Open AccessArticle

Validation of the Analytical Model of Oceanic Lidar Returns: Comparisons with Monte Carlo Simulations and Experimental Results

1
State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
2
Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800, China
3
Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Pr. Nezavisimosti 68-2, Minsk 220072, Belarus
4
National Ocean Technology Center, Tianjin 300112, China
5
Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK
6
National Satellite Ocean Application Service, Beijing 100081, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(16), 1870; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11161870
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 28 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Remote Sensing)
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PDF [7511 KB, uploaded 9 August 2019]
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Abstract

The analytical model based on the quasi-single small-angle scattering approximation can efficiently simulate oceanic lidar signals with multiple scattering; thus, its accuracy is of particular interest to scientists. In this paper, the model is modified to include refraction at oblique incidence and is then compared with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and experimental results. Under different conditions, the results calculated by the analytical model demonstrate good agreement with the MC simulation and experimental data. The coefficient of determination R2 considering the logarithm of signals and the root mean square of the relative difference δ are R2 = 0.998 and δ = 10% in comparison with the semi-analytic MC simulation and R2 = 0.952 and δ = 46% for the lidar experiment. Thus, the results demonstrate the validity of the analytical model in the simulation of oceanic lidar signals. View Full-Text
Keywords: lidar; oceanography; analytical model; multiple scattering; monte carlo method lidar; oceanography; analytical model; multiple scattering; monte carlo method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhou, Y.; Chen, W.; Cui, X.; Malinka, A.; Liu, Q.; Han, B.; Wang, X.; Zhuo, W.; Che, H.; Song, Q.; Zhu, X.; Liu, D. Validation of the Analytical Model of Oceanic Lidar Returns: Comparisons with Monte Carlo Simulations and Experimental Results. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1870.

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