Next Article in Journal
Experimental Investigation of Ocean Wave Measurement Using Short-Range K-Band Radar: Dock-Based and Boat-Based Wind Wave Measurements
Next Article in Special Issue
Validation of 7 Years in-Flight HY-2A Calibration Microwave Radiometer Products Using Numerical Weather Model and Radiosondes
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
A Priori Solar Radiation Pressure Model for BeiDou-3 MEO Satellites
Article Menu
Issue 13 (July-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessTechnical Note

Adjustment of Transceiver Lever Arm Offset and Sound Speed Bias for GNSS-Acoustic Positioning

School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China
First Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Qingdao 266061, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(13), 1606;
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 16 June 2019 / Accepted: 24 June 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Navigation Satellite Systems for Earth Observing System)
PDF [2407 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]


Global Navigation Satellite System—Acoustic (GNSS-A) positioning is the main technique for seafloor geodetic positioning. A transceiver lever arm offset and sound velocity bias in seawater are the main systematic errors of the GNSS-A positioning technique. Based on data from a sea trial in shallow water, this paper studies the functional model of GNSS-A positioning. The impact of the two systematic errors on seafloor positioning is analysed and corresponding processing methods are proposed. The results show that the offset in the lever arm measurement should be parameterised in the observation equation. Given the high correlation between the vertical lever arm offset and the vertical coordinate of the seafloor station, a sample search method was introduced to fix the vertical offset correction. If the calibration of the sound velocity profiler cannot be ensured, the correction parameter of the sound velocity bias should be solved. According to the refined functional model and corrections, the position of a seafloor station in shallow water can be determined with a precision of better than 1 cm. View Full-Text
Keywords: GNSS-A; lever arm offset; sound velocity bias; sample search GNSS-A; lever arm offset; sound velocity bias; sample search

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Tian, Z.; Li, M. Adjustment of Transceiver Lever Arm Offset and Sound Speed Bias for GNSS-Acoustic Positioning. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1606.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top