Next Article in Journal
Radiometric Calibration of UAV Remote Sensing Image with Spectral Angle Constraint
Previous Article in Journal
Comparing Remotely-Sensed Surface Energy Balance Evapotranspiration Estimates in Heterogeneous and Data-Limited Regions: A Case Study of Tanzania’s Kilombero Valley
Open AccessArticle

Climate Change, Land Use/Land Cover Change, and Population Growth as Drivers of Groundwater Depletion in the Central Valleys, Oaxaca, Mexico

1
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CIIDIR-Oaxaca. Hornos No. 1003, Col. Noche Buena, Municipio de Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán C.P. 71230 Oaxaca, Mexico
2
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Instituto de Geofísica, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, C.P. 04150 Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico
3
Department of Geography, Texas State University-San Marcos, 601 University Dr., San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(11), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11111290
Received: 3 April 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 27 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Biogeosciences Remote Sensing)
Groundwater depletion is an important problem driven by population growth, land use and land cover (LULC) change, climate change, and other factors. Groundwater depletion generates water stress and encourages unstainable resource use. The aim of this study is to determine how population growth, LULC change, and climate change relate to groundwater depletion in the Alto Atoyac sub-basin, Oaxaca, Mexico. Twenty-five years of dry season water table data from 1984 to 2009 are analyzed to examine annual groundwater depletion. Kriging is used to interpolate the region’s groundwater levels in a geographic information system (GIS) from mapped point measurements. An analysis of remotely sensed data revealed patterns of LULC change during a 34-year (1986–2018) period, using a supervised, machine-learning classification algorithm to calculate the changes in LULC. This analysis is shown to have an 85% accuracy. A global circulation model (GFDL-CM3) and the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios were used to estimate the effects of climate change on the region’s groundwater. Estimates of evapotranspiration (using HELP3.5 code) and runoff (USDA-SCS-CN), were calculated. Since 1984, the region’s mean annual temperature has increased 1.79 °C and urban areas have increased at a rate of 2.3 km2/year. Population growth has increased water consumption by 97.93 × 106 m3/year. The volume of groundwater is shrinking at a rate of 284.34 × 106 m3/year, reflecting the extreme pressure on groundwater supply in the region. This research reveals the nature of the direct impacts that climate change, changing LULCs, and population growth have in the process of groundwater depletion. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; groundwater depletion; land use and land cover change; population growth; runoff; evapotranspiration; water recharge climate change; groundwater depletion; land use and land cover change; population growth; runoff; evapotranspiration; water recharge
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ojeda Olivares, E.A.; Sandoval Torres, S.; Belmonte Jiménez, S.I.; Campos Enríquez, J.O.; Zignol, F.; Reygadas, Y.; Tiefenbacher, J.P. Climate Change, Land Use/Land Cover Change, and Population Growth as Drivers of Groundwater Depletion in the Central Valleys, Oaxaca, Mexico. Remote Sens. 2019, 11, 1290.

AMA Style

Ojeda Olivares EA, Sandoval Torres S, Belmonte Jiménez SI, Campos Enríquez JO, Zignol F, Reygadas Y, Tiefenbacher JP. Climate Change, Land Use/Land Cover Change, and Population Growth as Drivers of Groundwater Depletion in the Central Valleys, Oaxaca, Mexico. Remote Sensing. 2019; 11(11):1290.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ojeda Olivares, Edwin A.; Sandoval Torres, Sadoth; Belmonte Jiménez, Salvador I.; Campos Enríquez, José O.; Zignol, Francesco; Reygadas, Yunuen; Tiefenbacher, John P. 2019. "Climate Change, Land Use/Land Cover Change, and Population Growth as Drivers of Groundwater Depletion in the Central Valleys, Oaxaca, Mexico" Remote Sens. 11, no. 11: 1290.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop