This research was aimed at developing the mapping model of benthic habitat mapping using machine-learning classification algorithms and tested the applicability of the model in different areas. We integrated in situ benthic habitat data and image processing of WorldView-2 (WV2) image to parameterise the machine-learning algorithm, namely: Random Forest (RF), Classification Tree Analysis (CTA), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The classification inputs are sunglint-free bands, water column corrected bands, Principle Component (PC) bands, bathymetry, and the slope of underwater topography. Kemujan Island was used in developing the model, while Karimunjawa, Menjangan Besar, and Menjangan Kecil Islands served as test areas. The results obtained indicated that RF was more accurate than any other classification algorithm based on the statistics and benthic habitats spatial distribution. The maximum accuracy of RF was 94.17% (4 classes) and 88.54% (14 classes). The accuracies from RF, CTA, and SVM were consistent across different input bands for each classification scheme. The application of RF model in the classification of benthic habitat in other areas revealed that it is recommended to make use of the more general classification scheme in order to avoid several issues regarding benthic habitat variations. The result also established the possibility of mapping a benthic habitat without the use of training areas.
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