Next Article in Journal
An Improved Digital Elevation Model of the Lunar Mons Rümker Region Based on Multisource Altimeter Data
Previous Article in Journal
Estimation of Methane Emissions from Rice Paddies in the Mekong Delta Based on Land Surface Dynamics Characterization with Remote Sensing
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1441; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091441

Long-Term Changes in Water Clarity in Lake Liangzi Determined by Remote Sensing

1,2
,
1,2
,
2,* and 1,*
1
National Field Station of Freshwater Ecosystem of Liangzi Lake, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China
2
Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, Jiangsu, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5043 KB, uploaded 10 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Water clarity (via the Secchi disk depth, SDD) is an important indicator of water quality and lake ecosystem health. Monitoring long-term SDD change is vital for water quality assessment and lake management. In this study, we developed and validated an empirical model for estimating the SDD based on Landsat ETM+ and OLI data using the combination of band ratio of the near-infrared (NIR) band to the blue band and the NIR band. Time series data of remotely estimated SDD in Lake Liangzi were retrieved from 2007 to 2016 using the proposed models based on forty Landsat images. The results of the Mann–Kendall test (p = 0.002) and linear regression (R2 = 0.352, p < 0.001) indicated that the SDD in Lake Liangzi demonstrated a significant decreasing trend during the study period. The annual mean SDD in Lake Liangzi was significantly negatively correlated with the population (R2 = 0.530, p = 0.017) and gross domestic product (R2 = 0.619, p = 0.007) of the Lake Liangzi basin. In addition, water level increase and the flood have an important effect on SDD decrease. Our study revealed that anthropogenic activities may be driving factors for the long-term declining trend in the SDD. Additionally, floods and heavy precipitation may decrease the SDD over the short term in Lake Liangzi. A declining trend in the SDD in Lake Liangzi may continue under future intense anthropogenic activities and climate change such as the extreme heavy precipitation event increase. View Full-Text
Keywords: water clarity; Landsat; Lake Liangzi; anthropogenic activities; floods water clarity; Landsat; Lake Liangzi; anthropogenic activities; floods
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, X.; Huang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Yu, D. Long-Term Changes in Water Clarity in Lake Liangzi Determined by Remote Sensing. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1441.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top