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Open AccessArticle

Geographically Weighted Area-to-Point Regression Kriging for Spatial Downscaling in Remote Sensing

State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information Systems, Institute of Geographic Sciences & Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Soil Geography and Landscape Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Geography, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14261, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(4), 579;
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 4 April 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Image Downscaling)
Spatial downscaling of remotely sensed products is one of the main ways to obtain earth observations at fine resolution. Area-to-point (ATP) geostatistical techniques, in which regular fine grids of remote sensing products are regarded as points, have been applied widely for spatial downscaling. In spatial downscaling, it is common to use auxiliary information to explain some of the unknown spatial variation of the target geographic variable. Because of the ubiquitously spatial heterogeneities, the observed variables always exhibit uncontrolled variance. To overcome problems caused by local heterogeneity that cannot meet the stationarity requirement in ATP regression kriging, this paper proposes a hybrid spatial statistical method which incorporates geographically weighted regression and ATP kriging for spatial downscaling. The proposed geographically weighted ATP regression kriging (GWATPRK) combines fine spatial resolution auxiliary information and allows for non-stationarity in a downscaling model. The approach was verified using eight groups of four different 25 km-resolution surface soil moisture (SSM) remote sensing products to obtain 1 km SSM predictions in two experimental regions, in conjunction with the implementation of three benchmark methods. Analyses and comparisons of the different downscaled results showed GWATPRK obtained downscaled fine spatial resolution images with greater quality and an average loss with a root mean square error value of 17.5%. The analysis indicated the proposed method has high potential for spatial downscaling in remote sensing applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial downscaling; high-resolution imaging; soil moisture spatial downscaling; high-resolution imaging; soil moisture
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jin, Y.; Ge, Y.; Wang, J.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Wang, L. Geographically Weighted Area-to-Point Regression Kriging for Spatial Downscaling in Remote Sensing. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 579.

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