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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030453

The Effect of Surface Waves on Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) Measurement Uncertainties

1
Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA
2
Labsphere Inc., 231 Shaker St., North Sutton, NH 03260, USA
3
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Undersea Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) provides a rapid means of data collection that provides seamless digital elevation maps across land and water. However, environmental factors such as water surface induce significant uncertainty in the ALB measurements. In this study, the effect of water surface on the ALB measurements is characterized both theoretically and empirically. Theoretical analysis includes Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations that evaluate different environmental and hardware conditions such as wind speed, laser beam footprint diameter and off-nadir angle that are typically observed in ALB survey conditions. The empirical study includes development of an optical detector array to measure and analyze the refraction angle of the laser beam under a variety of environmental and hardware conditions. The results suggest that the refraction angle deviations ( 2 σ ) in the along-wind direction vary between 3–5° when variations in wind speed, laser beam footprint size and the laser beam incidence angle are taken into account. View Full-Text
Keywords: lidar; bathymetry; uncertainty; surface waves lidar; bathymetry; uncertainty; surface waves
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Birkebak, M.; Eren, F.; Pe’eri, S.; Weston, N. The Effect of Surface Waves on Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) Measurement Uncertainties. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 453.

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