Next Article in Journal
An Efficient Maximum Likelihood Estimation Approach of Multi-Baseline SAR Interferometry for Refined Topographic Mapping in Mountainous Areas
Next Article in Special Issue
Compressive Sound Speed Profile Inversion Using Beamforming Results
Previous Article in Journal
Long Short-Term Memory Neural Networks for Online Disturbance Detection in Satellite Image Time Series
Previous Article in Special Issue
Seismic Remote Sensing of Super Typhoon Lupit (2009) with Seismological Array Observation in NE China
Article

The Effect of Surface Waves on Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) Measurement Uncertainties

1
Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire, 24 Colovos Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA
2
Labsphere Inc., 231 Shaker St., North Sutton, NH 03260, USA
3
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030453
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Undersea Remote Sensing)
Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) provides a rapid means of data collection that provides seamless digital elevation maps across land and water. However, environmental factors such as water surface induce significant uncertainty in the ALB measurements. In this study, the effect of water surface on the ALB measurements is characterized both theoretically and empirically. Theoretical analysis includes Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulations that evaluate different environmental and hardware conditions such as wind speed, laser beam footprint diameter and off-nadir angle that are typically observed in ALB survey conditions. The empirical study includes development of an optical detector array to measure and analyze the refraction angle of the laser beam under a variety of environmental and hardware conditions. The results suggest that the refraction angle deviations ( 2 σ ) in the along-wind direction vary between 3–5° when variations in wind speed, laser beam footprint size and the laser beam incidence angle are taken into account. View Full-Text
Keywords: lidar; bathymetry; uncertainty; surface waves lidar; bathymetry; uncertainty; surface waves
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Birkebak, M.; Eren, F.; Pe’eri, S.; Weston, N. The Effect of Surface Waves on Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) Measurement Uncertainties. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 453. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030453

AMA Style

Birkebak M, Eren F, Pe’eri S, Weston N. The Effect of Surface Waves on Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) Measurement Uncertainties. Remote Sensing. 2018; 10(3):453. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030453

Chicago/Turabian Style

Birkebak, Matthew, Firat Eren, Shachak Pe’eri, and Neil Weston. 2018. "The Effect of Surface Waves on Airborne Lidar Bathymetry (ALB) Measurement Uncertainties" Remote Sensing 10, no. 3: 453. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030453

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop