Next Article in Journal
Burned Area Mapping of an Escaped Fire into Tropical Dry Forest in Western Madagascar Using Multi-Season Landsat OLI Data
Next Article in Special Issue
A Lookup-Table-Based Approach to Estimating Surface Solar Irradiance from Geostationary and Polar-Orbiting Satellite Data
Previous Article in Journal
Sparse Bayesian Learning Based Three-Dimensional Imaging Algorithm for Off-Grid Air Targets in MIMO Radar Array
Previous Article in Special Issue
Estimation of Forest Canopy Height and Aboveground Biomass from Spaceborne LiDAR and Landsat Imageries in Maryland
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Characterizing Land Surface Anisotropic Reflectance over Rugged Terrain: A Review of Concepts and Recent Developments

1,2,3,*, 2,4, 1,3, 1,2,3, 1,2, 1,3, 1,3 and 1,3
1
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
Joint Center for Global Change Studies (JCGCS), Beijing 100875, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
4
College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(3), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10030370
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 4 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
  |  
PDF [5292 KB, uploaded 27 February 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Rugged terrain, including mountains, hills, and some high lands are typical land surfaces around the world. As a physical parameter for characterizing the anisotropic reflectance of the land surface, the importance of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) has been gradually recognized in the remote sensing community, and great efforts have been dedicated to build BRDF models over various terrain types. However, on rugged terrain, the topography intensely affects the shape and magnitude of the BRDF and creates challenges in modeling the BRDF. In this paper, after a brief introduction of the theoretical background of the BRDF over rugged terrain, the status of estimating land surface BRDF properties over rugged terrain is comprehensively reviewed from a historical perspective and summarized in two categories: BRDFs describing solo slopes and those describing composite slopes. The discussion focuses on land surface reflectance retrieval over mountainous areas, the difference in solo slope and composite slope BRDF models, and suggested future research to improve the accuracy of BRDFs derived with remote sensing satellites. View Full-Text
Keywords: anisotropic reflectance; BRDF; rugged terrain; solo slope; composite slope anisotropic reflectance; BRDF; rugged terrain; solo slope; composite slope
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wen, J.; Liu, Q.; Xiao, Q.; Liu, Q.; You, D.; Hao, D.; Wu, S.; Lin, X. Characterizing Land Surface Anisotropic Reflectance over Rugged Terrain: A Review of Concepts and Recent Developments. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 370.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top