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Validation of Sensing Ocean Surface Currents Using Multi-Frequency HF Radar Based on a Circular Receiving Array

School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Collaborative Innovation Center for Geospatial Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
National Center of Ocean Standard and Metrology, Tianjin 300112, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 184;
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ocean Surface Currents: Progress in Remote Sensing and Validation)
PDF [52141 KB, uploaded 30 January 2018]


To reduce the floor space of receiving antenna arrays, the Radio Ocean Remote SEnsing (RORSE) laboratory of Wuhan University developed a circular receiving array for a multi-frequency high frequency (MHF) radar system in 2014, consisting of seven uniformly spaced antenna elements positioned on a circle with a diameter of 5 m. The new system, which is abbreviated MHF-C radar, adopts frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW) chirps and is capable of simultaneously operating at a maximum of four frequencies in the band of 7.5–25 MHz, and providing current, wave and wind maps every ten minutes. The phase direction-finding method is utilized to estimate the directions of the current signals, and array phase uncertainties are also taken into consideration in the signal model. This paper introduces the system in detail and investigates the performance of current measurements using MHF-C radars installed at Shengshan and Zhujiajian along the coast of the East China Sea. Radial current measurements derived from 8.27 MHz and 19.20 MHz at the same range are compared. Observations and comparisons between MHF-C radars and acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) are also presented in this paper. The results preliminarily demonstrate that the MHF-C radar system is capable of maintaining the same performance for current measurements whenever it steers to any other azimuth in the coverage and has a good ability to measure currents. View Full-Text
Keywords: HF radar; multi-frequency; circular receiving array; currents HF radar; multi-frequency; circular receiving array; currents

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhao, C.; Chen, Z.; He, C.; Xie, F.; Chen, X.; Mou, C. Validation of Sensing Ocean Surface Currents Using Multi-Frequency HF Radar Based on a Circular Receiving Array. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 184.

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