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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(2), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10020166

Stable Water Isotopologues in the Stratosphere Retrieved from Odin/SMR Measurements

1
Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Leopoldshafen, Germany
4
Geophysical Institute, Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, University of Bergen, 5020 Bergen, Norway
5
LMD/IPSL, CNRS, 75005 Paris, France
6
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 November 2017 / Revised: 18 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Water Cycle: Theory, Sensors, Data, and Applications)
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Abstract

Stable Water Isotopologues (SWIs) are important diagnostic tracers for understanding processes in the atmosphere and the global hydrological cycle. Using eight years (2002–2009) of retrievals from Odin/SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer), the global climatological features of three SWIs, H216O, HDO and H218O, the isotopic composition δD and δ18O in the stratosphere are analysed for the first time. Spatially, SWIs are found to increase with altitude due to stratospheric methane oxidation. In the tropics, highly depleted SWIs in the lower stratosphere indicate the effect of dehydration when the air comes through the cold tropopause, while, at higher latitudes, more enriched SWIs in the upper stratosphere during summer are produced and transported to the other hemisphere via the Brewer–Dobson circulation. Furthermore, we found that more H216O is produced over summer Northern Hemisphere and more HDO is produced over summer Southern Hemisphere. Temporally, a tape recorder in H216O is observed in the lower tropical stratosphere, in addition to a pronounced downward propagating seasonal signal in SWIs from the upper to the lower stratosphere over the polar regions. These observed features in SWIs are further compared to SWI-enabled model outputs. This helped to identify possible causes of model deficiencies in reproducing main stratospheric features. For instance, choosing a better advection scheme and including methane oxidation process in a specific model immediately capture the main features of stratospheric water vapor. The representation of other features, such as the observed inter-hemispheric difference of isotopic component, is also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: stable water isotopologues; stratosphere; climatology; Odin/SMR satellite data stable water isotopologues; stratosphere; climatology; Odin/SMR satellite data
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Wang, T.; Zhang, Q.; Lossow, S.; Chafik, L.; Risi, C.; Murtagh, D.; Hannachi, A. Stable Water Isotopologues in the Stratosphere Retrieved from Odin/SMR Measurements. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 166.

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