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Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1575;

An Integrated Efficiency–Risk Approach in Sustainable Project Control

School of Industrial Engineering, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Tehran 1151863411, Iran
Department of Industrial Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 1684613114, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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The lack of integrated project control techniques covering both qualitative and quantitative indices is one of the most important reasons leading to unfinished projects under predetermined schedules and expected budgets. Two modern techniques proposed in project control—the critical chain method and buffer management (CCM/BM), and the earned value analysis or earned value management and earned schedule (EVM/ES)—both have advantages and disadvantages. Goldratt proposed the CCM/BM method in 1997 based on the theory of constraint (TOC), but this method was not successful despite some improvements in project control because of some executive reasons. The most noteworthy constraint of this method is the management of time and time risks (use of a time buffer) of the project more than the subject. Goldratt believed that time control could be the most critical issue in project control. In other words, the overall problems associated with each project can be solved as long as the buffer time is under control and there is no need to control the other items. EVM/ES is one of the important techniques used to calculate real project development; it has been used for the integrated management of sustainable projects in recent decades. Using this technique, project managers can predict the final status of the project in terms of the necessary time and cost to finish the project. However, this method is limited by the management of the project cost and the lack of interference in the project risks. In sum, the CCM/BM method focuses on time and its risks associated with the project, thus making it advantageous to other techniques. Conversely, EVM/ES focuses on the costs or schedule with non-probabilistic assumptions, giving some interesting results. Therefore, this study aims to represent an integrated framework that considers the advantages of both CCM/BM and EVM/ES, called the efficiency–risk approach, which is implemented to control sustainable projects efficiently. This hybrid form can simultaneously control all the parameters, including both quantitative and qualitative variables, time, cost, and risk in conjunction with the project. Schedule and cost buffers of the project are derived using new formulations that provide appropriate estimations on the duration and cost for completing the sustainable projects and the relevant risks. The proposed ideas are analyzed and described through an industrial case study in the Steel Company, Isfahan, Iran. View Full-Text
Keywords: efficiency; risk; critical chain; earned value; schedule buffer; cost buffer efficiency; risk; critical chain; earned value; schedule buffer; cost buffer

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Ghazvini, M.S.; Ghezavati, V.; Raissi, S.; Makui, A. An Integrated Efficiency–Risk Approach in Sustainable Project Control. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1575.

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