How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities
2.1. Describing the Sharing Economy
- Re-circulation of goods: taking unwanted goods and selling or giving them away via online marketplaces. Examples: eBay, Freecycle.
- Increased utilization of durable assets: taking durable goods or assets that are not being used to their fullest potential and utilizing them more intensively. Examples: Airbnb, tool libraries.
- Exchange of services: bartering sites in which services are traded for other things, such as time, money, or other services. Examples: Task Rabbit, time banks.
- Sharing of productive assets: involves sharing assets or spaces that foster production, rather than consumption. Examples: Skillshare.com, cooperatives.
2.2. Sharing is Broader than the Sharing Economy
2.2.1. Examples of Sharing Alongside the Sharing Economy
2.3. Background Summary
3.1. Co-Design Workshops
3.1.1. Recruitment and Participants
- Mapping current initiatives of formal and informal sharing. Upon entering the workshop space, participants were given a card and asked to write down an example of sharing. Participants then attached their card to a large piece of paper on a wall that already contained categories of sharing (e.g., sharing food, sharing knowledge); the idea was to place their card next to the category that best reflected their sharing example (see Figure 1). Once completed, participants shared their examples with 4–7 other participants at tables, providing more detail such as who shares, what and how is being shared, and so forth. Participants then were encouraged to make connections between their sharing examples. The research team, seated at each table, facilitated this discussion by probing for existing, missing, and potential connections.
- Envisioning sharing city scenarios. This section of the workshop began with an opportunity to quickly remove negative thinking ahead of the final design activity. Participants were asked to think what could be the worst-case scenario affecting sharing in their area. They wrote their concerns down, shared it with those at their tables and put the concerns in a box, which then was hidden out of sight. Subsequently, participants were tasked with designing a future city or neighborhood that encouraged sharing. To help them out, participants were given an array of materials and tools, including colored tissue, maps, wooden blocks, miniature people, pens, and string. We also equipped participants with small signs containing the words, ‘create’, ‘amplify’, or ‘destroy’, inspired by the position that design for sustainability requires consideration for what futures we choose to sustain, create, or destroy , and the desire to ‘use what exists’ in amplifying promising solutions that offer potential [52,53] (It can be argued that the notions of creating, amplifying, and destroying overlaps with the three different approaches to creating system change in cities, respectively: re-invention, subversion, and revolution ). These terms were to be used when they wanted to produce something that was not currently available (create), they wanted more of something (amplify), or they wanted to remove something they currently did not like (destroy) in relation to sharing.
4.1. What Examples of Sharing Exist in Cities?
4.2. What Could Be Developed to Facilitate a Sharing City?
Conflicts of Interest
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|Sharing Example||Who Shares?||What Is Shared?||How Is It Shared?||Why Is It Shared?|
|Ideas in education, networking with civic society||Educators, academics, students, parents||Knowledge, skills, methods, ideas||Formally, through the education system||To help enhance education for everyone involved; general curiosity|
|Entrepreneurial experiences||Local entrepreneurs||Practical tips||Business networks and informal learning||Potential opportunities may arise to work together; the journey feels less lonely|
|Lancaster Library with its Friends group||Local authority, community volunteers||Venue, facilities, funds||Organised group with a constitution||To increase cultural activities in the community; to support public services|
|Lifts to school||Neighbours||Car journeys||Turn-taking||To save time and petrol; act is better for the environment|
|Rosemere Cancer Foundation café||Retired women||Time||Once a week, they go to the café and help with all the tasks, including supporting patients||To help people in different ways who are suffering with cancer|
|Freegle (online gifting of unwanted items instead of throwing away)||Anyone with access to the Internet||Tangible items that would otherwise end up in a landfill||Re-using/re-purposing things||To save things from being thrown into landfills; to gift items to those who might need them|
|Food and time||Anyone who volunteers||Fresh vegetables||People pick what they need and take it home||The people who volunteer like fresh vegetables and fresh air, exercise, socialising, and friendship|
|Time||Between friends, one of whom it unwell and one who is well||Time to spend with housebound person, doing household chores||Specific times are set to stop by and help||For reasons of friendship, community spirit, and resilience|
|Morecambe Library||Library/Young People’s Service (YPS)||Space/bills||YPS have own area within the building and contribute to paying the bills||Budget cuts; to allow the building to be used sustainably|
|Library||Lancaster County Council library staff||Library venue and resources||The space is shared; books and other resources are used by patrons; community groups are supported||A commitment to serve the local area|
|Lancaster Arts City||The Dukes, Green Close, Lancaster Music Festival, Litfest, Lancaster Arts at Lancaster University, Ludus Dance, More Music and Storey G2||Joined-up governance to champion and promote the strategic development of arts activities in Lancaster||Governance; operational delivery||To promote the arts; advocacy and outreach|
|Fair Trade Towns (FFT) International||Whole communities who are a part of the FTT initiative||Ideas, best practices examples, and networks||Through networking via the FFT website, social media, national campaigns, steering committees, and events||To support Fair Trade; to use Fair Trade products; to attract media coverage and popular support for the campaign|
|Altruistic care in communities||People living in urban communities||Resources, time and care||Through exchange within a loose network of people||To help children and their families|
|Claver Hill Community Food Project||Members of group plus any public volunteers or attendees at events||Skills, friendship, knowledge, food, work, and photos (via Facebook)||Through participation; payment for food; membership; volunteering; conversations with others||For fun; to commit to a ‘good thing’; for exercise; to learn how to grow; to be involved in the transition town movement|
|‘Digital schools’ such as the digital inclusion experiment for HelpAge India||Older adults potentially feeling isolated and adult students from an Indian university||Conversations, experience, and knowledge through language||Online, by speaking English||For older adults, to meet new people and to help out; for adult students, to learn the English language and to help out|
|A hillside||40 households||A hillside containing two allotment areas, open pasture, woodland and an orchard||Legally, via a right to use/obligation to maintain in deeds to houses; practically, via work undertaken via contractors and volunteering||To be part of a healthy living concept|
|‘Friends of’ park groups||Mainly local residents and some users from further afield||Open spaces for different uses, like sports, dog walking, and cycling||Developing networks between different users; sharing activities among members of the group||To preserve open space in a city for the community; to enjoy nature and wildlife; to promote physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing|
|Building community||People from many different backgrounds and (dis)abilities||Times, skills, and lives||In conversations over food||To build a better world|
|The Ethical Small Traders Association (ESTA)||Various, small businesses trading locally and ethically in Lancaster||Ethical business services to the community||Promoting various businesses and local services; supporting each other||To benefit the Lancaster community as a whole where businesses are interdependent and interlinked|
|Lancaster Community Car Club||Members of Lancaster Cohousing and anyone who lives or works in the Lancaster area||Cars and journeys||Owning and maintaining a small number of vehicles that any member can book out||For environmental reasons|
|Lancaster Cohousing||Residents living in the cohousing project||Common areas, food, governance and tasks||By living in the cohousing project, one understands that various things will be shared||For environmental reasons; for community involvement and cohesion|
|Green Lancaster||Lancaster University students and staff; the wider Lancaster community; school children; international visitors||Space, growing projects, vegetables, knowledge, skills, and food they have grown||Through 2-hour volunteer sessions on-site; their online presence on Facebook; cooking events on campus; and special topic workshops||To learn how to cook; to spend time outdoors; to get physical exercise; to have a hands-on experience|
|The Friendship Centre||People over 55 who feel isolated||Companionship and activities||Three mornings a week||To have more opportunities for companionship|
|Judges’ Lodging garden group||Able-bodied and learning-disabled volunteers||Gardening, exercise, and turning wilderness into a garden||Once a week||To use and enjoy the space|
|Fairfield Gardens||Residents||Fruit (apples and plums), events, and activities||By working as volunteers; by using the land; by participating in events||To increase community spirit; to protect the environment and green space|
|Research on Lancaster food groups||Anyone who wants to get involved||Ideas, hopes and dreams, linked to research||One-to-one interviews and final meeting with all the groups||A desire to be better connected with one other|
|Sharing Example||Who Shares?||What Is Shared?||How Is It Shared?||Why Is It Shared?|
|Land and growing||Growers, local authority, NHS and the water company||Expertise, land, facilities, and ‘waste’||Informally, to develop new ideas||To increase sustainability and productivity; to be healthier; to reduce waste|
|Land, energy, utilities||Residents, local authority, NHS, the water company||Land, energy, and utilities||Informally, to develop new ideas||To solve known problems in food production and energy/waste management (e.g., repurposing waste)|
|A sustainable development course at Yokohama University, Japan||A whole year’s cohort of students||A process, their understanding, and food||Through teaching; through an end-of-year meal with other students||To ‘make real’ the learning through food sharing|
|14 chickens||About 10 households||The eggs||Each household is responsible for one day a week or a fortnight of chicken care—they clean, feed, and open/shut the coop on that day, and they keep the eggs||To be able to have 10 to 12 eggs once a week|
|Outdoor learning resources||Session leaders from Highbury Orchard community and Muddy Puddles||Ideas, skills, materials, and outdoor space||Through periodic meetings; via Facebook; through the co-delivery of outdoor sessions||To broaden a skills base; to increase contacts; to offer more to the local community|
|Clothes swap||Friends and neighbours||Clothes that the owners no longer want||Through a bi-annual gathering||To replenish one’s wardrobe in an efficient and cost-effective way|
|Bringing culture to the public||People working, engaging, and/or interested in Birmingham’s art and culture scene||Ideas to improve the promotion and physical presentation of art and culture in Birmingham||Through a world café brainstorm and debate with key figures from the city’s flagship and independent arts initiatives||To have a say in improving the operations and the success of Birmingham’s culture scene; to boost Birmingham’s reputation; to help establish the city as a cultural hotspot|
|Borroclub.co.uk||Members||Household items||The website||To be charitable; to save money; to earn money; to try before you buy; for environmental reasons; to connect with the community|
|Distributed energy networks||Anyone connected to the networks||Energy and heat||Through a heat network||To reduce costs|
|Ort Café||Local community within Balsall Heath, Kings Heath and Moseley; artists, musicians, and craft practitioners||Skills, time, ideas, and things||Through bartering; through making time for skills; having a swap shop||To access things that could not be accessed otherwise; to help people out who are facing financial, time, or resource restrictions|
|Giving allotment produce to The Real Junk Food Project||Person giving the example and The Real Junk Food Project||Surplus allotment of vegetables||By taking food to The Real Junk Food Project||To put surplus food to good use; to have a positive impact on austerity|
|Food||Various community groups and volunteers||Food, advice, and support||By having food available in places where it is most needed||To help those who are not currently being helped|
|Food Forest Brum||Disparate groups across Birmingham||Food plants, knowledge, and expertise||Through open days in various sites; through workshops and skill sharing days||To create a vision of local and wild food provision|
|Workshop space and expertise/skills||Moseley and Kings Heath and South Birmingham ‘Tools for Africa’||Workshop space, expertise, materials, and practical skills||By working closely and cooperatively together; by supporting both organisations informally||To foster strength in unity; to foster individual, practical, and intellectual strengths in both organisations|
|Active Parks||Community, Birmingham Open Spaces Farm, Friends of parks groups, local authority, national governing bodies of sport, sport clubs, and residents groups||Design and delivery of the Active Parks scheme||Through co-production, training, and strategy||To deliver better outcomes around being active and healthy|
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Boyko, C.T.; Clune, S.J.; Cooper, R.F.D.; Coulton, C.J.; Dunn, N.S.; Pollastri, S.; Leach, J.M.; Bouch, C.J.; Cavada, M.; De Laurentiis, V.; Goodfellow-Smith, M.; Hale, J.D.; Hunt, D.K.G.; Lee, S.E.; Locret-Collet, M.; Sadler, J.P.; Ward, J.; Rogers, C.D.F.; Popan, C.; Psarikidou, K.; Urry, J.; Blunden, L.S.; Bourikas, L.; Büchs, M.; Falkingham, J.; Harper, M.; James, P.A.B.; Kamanda, M.; Sanches, T.; Tuner, P.; Wu, P.Y.; Bahaj, A.S.; Ortegon, A.; Barnes, K.; Cosgrave, E.; Honeybone, P.; Joffe, H.; Kwami, C.; Zeeb, V.; Collins, B.; Tyler, N. How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities. Sustainability 2017, 9, 701. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050701
Boyko CT, Clune SJ, Cooper RFD, Coulton CJ, Dunn NS, Pollastri S, Leach JM, Bouch CJ, Cavada M, De Laurentiis V, Goodfellow-Smith M, Hale JD, Hunt DKG, Lee SE, Locret-Collet M, Sadler JP, Ward J, Rogers CDF, Popan C, Psarikidou K, Urry J, Blunden LS, Bourikas L, Büchs M, Falkingham J, Harper M, James PAB, Kamanda M, Sanches T, Tuner P, Wu PY, Bahaj AS, Ortegon A, Barnes K, Cosgrave E, Honeybone P, Joffe H, Kwami C, Zeeb V, Collins B, Tyler N. How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities. Sustainability. 2017; 9(5):701. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050701Chicago/Turabian Style
Boyko, Christopher T., Stephen J. Clune, Rachel F. D. Cooper, Claire J. Coulton, Nick S. Dunn, Serena Pollastri, Joanne M. Leach, Christopher J. Bouch, Mariana Cavada, Valeria De Laurentiis, Mike Goodfellow-Smith, James D. Hale, Dan K. G. Hunt, Susan E. Lee, Martin Locret-Collet, Jon P. Sadler, Jonathan Ward, Christopher D. F. Rogers, Cosmin Popan, Katerina Psarikidou, John Urry, Luke S. Blunden, Leonidas Bourikas, Milena Büchs, Jane Falkingham, Mikey Harper, Patrick A. B. James, Mamusu Kamanda, Tatiana Sanches, Philip Tuner, Phil Y. Wu, AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Adriana Ortegon, Katie Barnes, Ellie Cosgrave, Paul Honeybone, Helene Joffe, Corina Kwami, Victoria Zeeb, Brian Collins, and Nick Tyler. 2017. "How Sharing Can Contribute to More Sustainable Cities" Sustainability 9, no. 5: 701. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9050701