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Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 559;

Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ozone and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Mortalities Due to Ozone in Shenzhen

Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, MD 6200 Maastricht, The Netherlands
China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012, China
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
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In order to explore the temporal-spatial patterns and possible health effects of ozone in Shenzhen, daily concentrations of ozone and the daily mortality caused by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were collected. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and SPSS, the spatial and temporal patterns of ozone in Shenzhen were illustrated. Using a generalized additive model (GAM), the associations between ozone and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases causing mortality were analyzed, adjusted for meteorological factors and other major air pollutants including fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), and stratified by lag, age, and gender. The results showed that, during 2013, ozone was the second main air pollutant in Shenzhen apart from PM2.5, with average daily concentrations of 95.9 µg/m3 and 76.8 µg/m3 for the ozone 1-h mean and the daily ozone 8-h maximum concentration, respectively. The daily level of ozone had a higher concentration from September to October, and relatively low concentration from May to June. Obviously, a higher concentration was found in central parts of Shenzhen with the largest population, indicating higher risks. The excess risk (ER) percentage of the cardio-respiratory mortality rate showed a clearly accumulative effect at L03, with the highest ER percentage of 1.08 (0.88–1.27) per 10 µg/m3 increase in the ozone 8-h maximum concentration for all the population. Males were found to be more sensitive to ozone compared with females, and the elderly were more susceptible to ozone exposure than younger people. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; temporal-spatial patterns; cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; mortality; Shenzhen ozone; temporal-spatial patterns; cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; mortality; Shenzhen

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Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wang, W.; Liu, X.; Krafft, T. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ozone and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Mortalities Due to Ozone in Shenzhen. Sustainability 2017, 9, 559.

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