Next Article in Journal
Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Multiple Vehicle Fuel Pathways in China
Previous Article in Journal
Study of a Double-Layer Trombe Wall Assisted by a Temperature-Controlled DC Fan for Heating Seasons
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2177;

Toward Multi-Stakeholder Value: Virtual Human Resource Management

Department of Technology Application and Human Resource Development, National Taiwan Normal University, No.162, Sec. 1, He-Ping East Road, Taipei 10610, Taiwan
Department of Management Information Systems, National Chengchi University, No.64, Sec. 2, Zhinan Rd., Wenshan District, Taipei 11605, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 25 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
Full-Text   |   PDF [975 KB, uploaded 25 November 2017]   |  


Some large organizations have used online virtual worlds (e.g., Second Life) in human resources (HR) in recent years, but few studies have explored how the values are generated by this technology and what factors have an impact on the performance of this technology. In this article we identify the delivery of HR functions in virtual worlds as virtual human resource management (v-HRM). In principle, v-HRM is an integrated HR strategy that enhances the management of human capital and increases the visibility of human capital to worldwide stakeholders through the establishment of an online virtual world. By introducing the features of v-HRM and summarizing the initiatives of v-HRM based on IBM experiences, we propose a model that examines the multi-stakeholder value of v-HRM. A qualitative study was employed to explore the impact of v-HRM on four types of stakeholder values through the insights from social shaping of technology approach. The case analysis results also show four types of v-HRM value facilitators. This model acknowledges how and what to implement with respect to v-HRM, and thus can be used to guide future research on v-HRM. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual worlds; Second Life; virtual human resource management; HR transformation virtual worlds; Second Life; virtual human resource management; HR transformation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Suen, H.-Y.; Chang, H.-L. Toward Multi-Stakeholder Value: Virtual Human Resource Management. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2177.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top