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Modern Christian Landscape in Nanjing, China: A Literature Review

by Cheng Fang 1 and Bo Yang 2,3,*
Department of Landscape Architecture, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
School of Architecture and Planning, Jilin Jianzhu University, Changchun 130118, China
School of Landscape Architecture and Planning, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2155;
Received: 26 September 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
Between the First Opium War in 1840 and the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the development of modern Christianity in Nanjing expanded beyond the parameters of faith and spirituality, while interacting closely with Nanjing’s city life and space across a wider spectrum, such that a unique religious and cultural landscape was produced. Through an extensive literature review of 115 articles identified on this topic, this paper analyzes the development of the space of Christian churches in Nanjing, and further documents the pattern of interactions between Nanjing’s development as a modern city and its religious cultural landscape. Moreover, drawing from the theoretical perspective of Sense of Place, the paper summarizes the characteristics of religious cultural landscape in the aspects of vision and structure, function and modernization, and memory and identity, and points out that the Christian landscape should also be conducted from the activation of material form, local functions and historical meanings to achieve sustainable development of Christian landscape. Finally, the paper offers planning and design strategies for the continued growth of Christian landscape in Nanjing. View Full-Text
Keywords: cultural landscape; sense of place; evolution; activation; sustainable development; China cultural landscape; sense of place; evolution; activation; sustainable development; China
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Fang, C.; Yang, B. Modern Christian Landscape in Nanjing, China: A Literature Review. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2155.

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