Next Article in Journal
Factors Influencing Land Development and Redevelopment during China’s Rapid Urbanization: Evidence from Haikou City, 2003–2016
Previous Article in Journal
A Hybrid RES Distributed Generation System for Autonomous Islands: A DER-CAM and Storage-Based Economic and Optimal Dispatch Analysis
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales

Faculty of International Tourism and Management, City University of Macau, Macau, China
Department of Finance, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2012;
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
PDF [700 KB, uploaded 9 November 2017]


Macau gambling companies included Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) information in their annual reports and websites as a marketing tool. Responsible Gambling (RG) had been a recurring issue in Macau’s chief executive report since 2007 and in many of the major gambling operators’ annual report. The purpose of this study was to develop a measurement scale on CSR activities in Macau. Items on the measurement scale were based on qualitative research with data collected from employees in Macau’s gambling industry and academic literature. First and Second Order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to verify the reliability and validity of the measurement scale. The results of this study were satisfactory and were supported by empirical evidence. This study provided recommendations to gambling stakeholders, including practitioners, government officers, customers and shareholders, and implications to promote CSR practice in Macau gambling industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: gambling operator; CSR; RG; measurement scale; Macau gambling operator; CSR; RG; measurement scale; Macau

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, J.M.; Lam, C.F.; Chau, K.Y.; Shen, H.W.; Wang, X. Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Gambling Industry: Multi-Items Stakeholder Based Scales. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2012.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top