Next Article in Journal
Short-Term Multiple Forecasting of Electric Energy Loads for Sustainable Demand Planning in Smart Grids for Smart Homes
Next Article in Special Issue
Life Cycle Assessment of Two Vineyards after the Application of Precision Viticulture Techniques: A Case Study
Previous Article in Journal
Safety-Culture Exploration in Taiwan’s Metal Industries: Identifying the Workers’ Background Influence on Safety Climate
Previous Article in Special Issue
Energy Savings from Optimised In-Field Route Planning for Agricultural Machinery
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1971;

Reference Evapotranspiration Retrievals from a Mesoscale Model Based Weather Variables for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
DST-Mahamana Center of Excellence in Climate Change Research, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol-BS8 1TR, UK
Center of Excellence in Climatology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra- 835215, Ranchi, India
Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Aberystwyth, Wales SY233DB, UK
K. Banerjee Centre of Atmospheric and Ocean Studies, IIDS, Nehru Science Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad- 211002, India
Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
Full-Text   |   PDF [4303 KB, uploaded 28 October 2017]   |  


Reference Evapotranspiration (ETo) and soil moisture deficit (SMD) are vital for understanding the hydrological processes, particularly in the context of sustainable water use efficiency in the globe. Precise estimation of ETo and SMD are required for developing appropriate forecasting systems, in hydrological modeling and also in precision agriculture. In this study, the surface temperature downscaled from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to estimate ETo using the boundary conditions that are provided by the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). In order to understand the performance, the Hamon’s method is employed to estimate the ETo using the temperature from meteorological station and WRF derived variables. After estimating the ETo, a range of linear and non-linear models is utilized to retrieve SMD. The performance statistics such as RMSE, %Bias, and Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) indicates that the exponential model (RMSE = 0.226; %Bias = −0.077; NSE = 0.616) is efficient for SMD estimation by using the Observed ETo in comparison to the other linear and non-linear models (RMSE range = 0.019–0.667; %Bias range = 2.821–6.894; NSE = 0.013–0.419) used in this study. On the other hand, in the scenario where SMD is estimated using WRF downscaled meteorological variables based ETo, the linear model is found promising (RMSE = 0.017; %Bias = 5.280; NSE = 0.448) as compared to the non-linear models (RMSE range = 0.022–0.707; %Bias range = −0.207–−6.088; NSE range = 0.013–0.149). Our findings also suggest that all the models are performing better during the growing season (RMSE range = 0.024–0.025; %Bias range = −4.982–−3.431; r = 0.245–0.281) than the non−growing season (RMSE range = 0.011–0.12; %Bias range = 33.073–32.701; r = 0.161–0.244) for SMD estimation. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; soil moisture deficit; WRF; Noah Land Surface model; seasonality evapotranspiration; soil moisture deficit; WRF; Noah Land Surface model; seasonality

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Srivastava, P.K.; Han, D.; Yaduvanshi, A.; Petropoulos, G.P.; Singh, S.K.; Mall, R.K.; Prasad, R. Reference Evapotranspiration Retrievals from a Mesoscale Model Based Weather Variables for Soil Moisture Deficit Estimation. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1971.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top