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Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1795;

Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff

Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Environmental Improvement, Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Paweł Kożuchowski, Green Roofs Laboratory, Ceglana 2B, 05-250 Słupno, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 27 September 2017 / Accepted: 27 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Water Management)
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Urbanization leads to higher phosphorus (P) concentration in urban catchments. Among different stormwater retention measures, green roofs are the least efficient in phosphorus retention. Moreover, much research has shown that green roofs act as sources of phosphorus, and they can emit P in significant loads. In this study low P emission green roof substrate was developed based on the proposed step by step procedure for the selection of materials including laboratory tests, column experiments, and the monitoring of the open air green roof model. Developed substrate is the mixture of crushed red brick (35% of volume), crushed limestone (20% of volume), and sand (45% of volume), and is characterized by a bulk density of 1.52 g/cm3, water permeability of 9 mm/min, water capacity of 24.6% of volume, and granulometric composition that meets the Landscaping and Landscape Development Research Society (FLL) guidelines. Limestone was added to limit the potential P leaching from crushed red brick and vegetated mate consisted of Sedum album, Sedum acre, Sedum kamtschaticum, Sedum spurium, Sedum reflexum, Sedum sexangulare, Dianthus deltoides, Dianthus carthusianorum, and Thymus vulgaris. The open air model experiment was run for 319 days, from March 2015 to February 2016. The total water runoff from the green roof model amounted to 43.3% of runoff from the reference roof. The only one runoff event polluted with phosphorus was connected with the outflow of melted snow from an unfreezing green roof model. View Full-Text
Keywords: extensive green roof; phosphorus; substrate composition; runoff quality extensive green roof; phosphorus; substrate composition; runoff quality

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Karczmarczyk, A.; Baryła, A.; Kożuchowski, P. Design and Development of Low P-Emission Substrate for the Protection of Urban Water Bodies Collecting Green Roof Runoff. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1795.

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