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Environmental Performance of Miscanthus, Switchgrass and Maize: Can C4 Perennials Increase the Sustainability of Biogas Production?
Open AccessArticle

Adaptation of C4 Bioenergy Crop Species to Various Environments within the Southern Great Plains of USA

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Grassland Soil and Water Research Laboratory, Temple, TX 76502, USA
Texas A&M AgriLife Research, Blackland Research and Extension Center, Temple, TX 76502, USA
School of Plant, Environmental, and Soil Science, College of Agriculture at LSI AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
USDA-NRCS East Texas Plant Materials Center, Nacogdoches, TX 76501, USA
Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Wachendorf
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 89;
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Energy Conversion)
As highly productive perennial grasses are evaluated as bioenergy feedstocks, a major consideration is biomass yield stability. Two experiments were conducted to examine some aspects of yield stability for two biofuel species: switchgrass (Panicum vigratum L.) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Mxg). Biomass yields of these species were evaluated under various environmental conditions across the Southern Great Plains (SGP), including some sites with low soil fertility. In the first experiment, measured yields of four switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg varied among locations. Overall, plants showed optimal growth performance in study sites close to their geographical origins. Lowland switchgrass ecotypes and Mxg yields simulated by the ALMANAC model showed reasonable agreement with the measured yields across all study locations, while the simulated yields of upland switchgrass ecotypes were overestimated in northern locations. In the second experiment, examination of different N fertilizer rates revealed switchgrass yield increases over the range of 0, 80, or 160 kg N ha−1 year−1, while Mxg only showed yield increases between the low and medium N rates. This provides useful insights to crop management of two biofuel species and to enhance the predictive accuracy of process-based models, which are critical for developing bioenergy market systems in the SGP. View Full-Text
Keywords: ALMANAC; switchgrass; M. x giganteus; bioenergy; climate; nitrogen ALMANAC; switchgrass; M. x giganteus; bioenergy; climate; nitrogen
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Kim, S.; Kiniry, J.R.; Williams, A.S.; Meki, N.; Gaston, L.; Brakie, M.; Shadow, A.; Fritschi, F.B.; Wu, Y. Adaptation of C4 Bioenergy Crop Species to Various Environments within the Southern Great Plains of USA. Sustainability 2017, 9, 89.

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