Next Article in Journal
The Ethical Judgment and Moral Reaction to the Product-Harm Crisis: Theoretical Model and Empirical Research
Next Article in Special Issue
Driftwood Biomass in Italy: Estimation and Characterization
Previous Article in Journal
From Waste Management to Resource Efficiency—The Need for Policy Mixes
Previous Article in Special Issue
LED Lighting for Indoor Sports Facilities: Can Its Use Be Considered as Sustainable Solution from a Techno-Economic Standpoint?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study

CIRIAF, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti, 67-06125 Perugia, Italy
Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, Via V. Volterra, 62-00146 Rome, Italy
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 621;
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
PDF [3621 KB, uploaded 2 July 2016]


Life cycle assessments (LCAs) play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has been focusing the attention of consumers and producers towards environmentally sustainable products. This work presents a comprehensive approach for the joint evaluation of carbon (CF) and water (WF) footprint of the wine industry from a cradle to grave perspective. The LCA analysis is carried out following the requirements of international standards (ISO/TS 14067 and ISO 14046). A complete review of the water footprint methodology is presented and guidelines for all the phases of the evaluation procedure are provided, including acquisition and validation of input data, allocation, application of analytic models, and interpretation of the results. The strength of this approach is the implementation of a side-by-side CF vs. WF assessment, based on the same system boundaries, functional unit, and input data, that allows a reliable comparison between the two indicators. In particular, a revised methodology is presented for the evaluation of the grey water component. The methodology was applied to a white and a red wine produced in the same company. A comparison between the two products is presented for each LCA phase along with literature results for similar wines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Water Footprint (WF); Carbon Footprint (CF); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Wine Industry; PACS; J0101 Water Footprint (WF); Carbon Footprint (CF); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Wine Industry; PACS; J0101

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rinaldi, S.; Bonamente, E.; Scrucca, F.; Merico, M.C.; Asdrubali, F.; Cotana, F. Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study. Sustainability 2016, 8, 621.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top