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Sustainability 2016, 8(6), 582;

Coordinated Development Analysis of the “Resources-Environment-Ecology-Economy-Society” Complex System in China

1,2,* , 2,3
School of Resource and Environmental Sciences, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
Digital City Engineering Research Center, 1355 Jinji Lake Avenue, Suzhou 215021, China
Zhengzhou Institute of Surveying and Mapping, 66 Longhai Road, Zhengzhou 450052, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Ioppolo
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 17 June 2016 / Accepted: 17 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Engineering and Science)
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The aim of investigating the coordination of the complex system constituted by resources, environment, ecology, economy and society subsystems (CSR3ES), is to achieve sustainable development by: (1) describing the complicated relationships of the inner-subsystems and inter-systems; (2) designing the calculation method of the coordination degree for CSR3ES; (3) analyzing its developing trends from a macro point of view through comprehensive coordination degree; and (4) to determine the direction of system restoration from a micro point of view based on the inner-subsystem and inter-subsystem coordination degree, and to develop specific improvement strategies. By setting a province-level administrative region as a decision-making unit (DMU), the nationwide coordination of CSR3ES was studied. The main conclusions are: (1) The coordination degree between the subsystems is directly influenced by interactions between the elements. (2) Within the provinces and autonomous regions (PARs) in China, the levels of coordinated development of inter-subsystems are high, while the coordinated development between the elements within a single subsystem level are low. Furthermore, a positive coherent effect is exerted on the comprehensive coordination degree of CSR3ES by the inter-system synergistic effects. (3) In terms of spatial correlation, five comprehensive coordinated development modes of CSR3ES are formed: the northeast regional coordination mode group; the northwest regional uncoordinated mode group; the southeast regional coordination mode group; the central regional random mode group; and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei polarization mode. View Full-Text
Keywords: complex system; sustainable development; index system; coordination degree; coordination management complex system; sustainable development; index system; coordination degree; coordination management

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Xie, M.; Wang, J.; Chen, K. Coordinated Development Analysis of the “Resources-Environment-Ecology-Economy-Society” Complex System in China. Sustainability 2016, 8, 582.

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