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Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 497;

Biotech Approaches to Overcome the Limitations of Using Transgenic Plants in Organic Farming

Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection, Italian National Research Council, 80055 Portici, Italy
Olive Growing and Olive Oil Industry Research Centre, Agricultural Research Council, 87036 Rende, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gerhart U. Ryffel
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 5 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 20 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Farming and Gene Manipulation)
Full-Text   |   PDF [183 KB, uploaded 20 May 2016]


Organic farming prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) inasmuch as their genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. In actual fact, there is a conventional identity between GMOs and transgenic organisms, so that genetic modification methods such as somatic hybridization and mutagenesis are equalized to conventional breeding. A loophole in this system is represented by more or less innovative genetic engineering approaches under regulatory discussion, such as cisgenesis, oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, and antisense technologies, that are redefining the concept of GMOs and might circumvent the requirements of the GMO legislation and, indirectly, of organic farming. View Full-Text
Keywords: organic farming; cisgenesis; genome editing; GMO regulations organic farming; cisgenesis; genome editing; GMO regulations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Lombardo, L.; Zelasco, S. Biotech Approaches to Overcome the Limitations of Using Transgenic Plants in Organic Farming. Sustainability 2016, 8, 497.

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