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Sustainability 2016, 8(5), 452;

Feasibility Analyses of Developing Low Carbon City with Hybrid Energy Systems in China: The Case of Shenzhen

3,4,†,* , 5
Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804, China
Scientific Research Academy, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China
Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Research Center on Modern Logistics, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China
Department of Energy Economics, School of Economics, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
Institutes for International Studies, CICTSMR, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
These authors contributed equally to this~work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 2 May 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1831 KB, uploaded 9 May 2016]   |  


As the largest carbon emission source in China, the power sector grows rapidly owing to the country’s unprecedented urbanization and industrialization processes. In order to explore a low carbon urbanization pathway by reducing carbon emissions of the power sector, the Chinese government launched an international low carbon city (ILCC) project in Shenzhen. This paper presents a feasibility analysis on the potential hybrid energy system based on local renewable energy resources and electricity demand estimation over the three planning stages of the ILCC project. Wind power, solar power, natural gas and the existing power grid are components considered in the hybrid energy system. The simulation results indicate that the costs of energy in the three planning stages are 0.122, 0.105 and 0.141 $/kWh, respectively, if external wind farms and pumped storage hydro stations (PSHSs) exist. The optimization results reveal that the carbon reduction rates are 46.81%, 62.99% and 75.76% compared with the Business as Usual scenarios. The widely distributed water reservoirs in Shenzhen provide ideal conditions to construct PSHS, which is crucial in enhancing renewable energy utilization. View Full-Text
Keywords: renewable energy; low-carbon urbanization; hybrid energy system renewable energy; low-carbon urbanization; hybrid energy system

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Zhang, X.; Ma, Y.; Ye, B.; Chen, Z.-M.; Xiong, L. Feasibility Analyses of Developing Low Carbon City with Hybrid Energy Systems in China: The Case of Shenzhen. Sustainability 2016, 8, 452.

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