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Participatory Design of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea
Open AccessArticle

The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas

Alterra Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
LEI Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 29703, 2502 LS The Hague, The Netherlands
School of Economics, Athens University of Economics and Business, 28is Oktovriou 76, 10434 Athens, Greece
Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK
ICRE8: International ICRE8: Center for Research on the Environment and the Economy, Athens, 48 Aigialias & Epidavrou, str., Maroussi, 15125 Athens, Greece
Musholm A/S ReersøHavn, Strandvejen 101, DK 4281 Gørlev, Denmark
Department of Economics, University of Bologna, via Angherà 22, 47921 Rimini, Italy
Environmental Hydraulics Institute, IH Cantabria, University of Cantabria, C/Isabel Torres no 15, 39011 Santander, Spain
Deltares, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft, The Netherlands
Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy, Måsholmsgränd 3, SE-127 48 Skärholmen, Sweden
Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
Institute for Marine Resources & Ecosystem Studies (IMARES) Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 57, 1780 AB Den Helder, The Netherlands
Department of Civil, Chemicals, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Bologna—Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna, Italy
DHI, Agernalle 5, 2970 Horsholm, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Phoebe Koundouri
Sustainability 2016, 8(4), 333;
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
European seas are encountering an upsurge in competing marine activities and infrastructures. Traditional exploitation such as fisheries, tourism, transportation, and oil production are accompanied by new sustainable economic activities such as offshore windfarms, aquaculture, and tidal and wave energy. One proposed solution to overcome possible competing claims at sea lies in combining these economic activities as part of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea (MUPS). MUPS can be understood as areas at sea, designated for a combination of activities, either completely integrated in a platform or in shared marine space. MUPS can potentially benefit from each other in terms of infrastructure, maintenance, etc. Developing MUPS in the marine environment demands adequate governance. In this article, we investigate four European sites to find out how governance arrangements may facilitate or complicate MUPs. In particular, we apply a framework specifying policy, economic, social, technical, environmental, and legal (PESTEL) factors to explore governance arrangements in four case study sites in different sea basins around Europe (the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, and the Baltic Sea). The article concludes with policy recommendations on a governance regime for facilitating the development of MUPS in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: multi-use platforms; offshore; governance; PESTEL; energy production; aquaculture multi-use platforms; offshore; governance; PESTEL; energy production; aquaculture
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Stuiver, M.; Soma, K.; Koundouri, P.; Van den Burg, S.; Gerritsen, A.; Harkamp, T.; Dalsgaard, N.; Zagonari, F.; Guanche, R.; Schouten, J.-J.; Hommes, S.; Giannouli, A.; Söderqvist, T.; Rosen, L.; Garção, R.; Norrman, J.; Röckmann, C.; De Bel, M.; Zanuttigh, B.; Petersen, O.; Møhlenberg, F. The Governance of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea for Energy Production and Aquaculture: Challenges for Policy Makers in European Seas. Sustainability 2016, 8, 333.

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