Next Article in Journal
Sustainable Acoustic Metasurfaces for Sound Control
Previous Article in Journal
Green Component Procurement Collaboration for Improving Supply Chain Management in the High Technology Industries: A Case Study from the Systems Perspective
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(2), 104;

A Multi-Tier Social-Ecological System Analysis of Protected Areas Co-Management in Belize

Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, No. 1 Section 2 Da-Hsueh Rd., Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 4 August 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
PDF [1190 KB, uploaded 26 January 2016]


Co-management of protected areas has been recognized as a viable option to sustainably manage ecosystems. This collaborative approach actively engages civil society in the protected areas governance processes. Attempts at co-management, however, have not been uniformly successful; whereas the governance of some initiatives succeed and become strong and sustainable, others become weak or fail over time. In this paper, we provide a nuanced application of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework to carry out a systematic analysis of representative cases of co-management in Belize. This novel approach allows us to avoid the common problem of overstating the explanatory power of individual variables, while enabling us to tease out the interrelationships among critical process and contextual variables that may influence co-management outcomes. Our findings show that strong co-management is associated with a multiplicity of variables, including information sharing, conflict resolution, investments, self-organization, and networking. Contextual conditions inclusive of strong leadership, social capital, and high levels of dependence on resources for daily livelihoods seem to have influenced these processes over time. The presence of cross-scale and cross-level networks also seems to be important in influencing co-management outcomes. Our study contributes to the further development of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework by proposing the addition of five new third-tier variables. We advance some key lessons in the analysis of co-management outcomes and offer some policy recommendations to improve protected areas co-management policy and practice in Belize. View Full-Text
Keywords: Belize; co-management; commons; protected areas; SES framework Belize; co-management; commons; protected areas; SES framework

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Williams, K.W.; Tai, H.-S. A Multi-Tier Social-Ecological System Analysis of Protected Areas Co-Management in Belize. Sustainability 2016, 8, 104.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top