Next Article in Journal
Empirical Relationships among Technological Characteristics, Global Orientation, and Internationalisation of South Korean New Ventures
Next Article in Special Issue
Quick Green Scan: A Methodology for Improving Green Performance in Terms of Manufacturing Processes
Previous Article in Journal
Experimental Analysis and Process Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Removal Using Tuff
Previous Article in Special Issue
Air Pollution Monitoring Changes to Accompany the Transition from a Control to a Systems Focus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1259;

Initial Evaluation of Provincial-Level Environmental Risks from the Perspective of Human Settlements

School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
Centre for Marine Economy and Sustainable Development Research, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution Monitoring and Sustainable Development)
Full-Text   |   PDF [6633 KB, uploaded 2 December 2016]   |  


This study introduces risk theory of environmental science into human settlement science using 2004–2013 statistics, remote sensing data, and thematic maps. The entropy weight method and risk-index model are both used to study the characteristics of the time course and spatial pattern of human settlement risk in 31 provincial regions in China. In addition, influential mechanisms of vulnerability, functionality, stress, and adaptability on environmental risks are analyzed. Three primary results are obtained. First, for temporal characteristics, environmental risks of human settlements increased significantly from 2003 to 2012. The year 2006 marked both a sudden change and the cut-off point after which human settlements in China experienced qualitative changes and new risks. Second, for spatial characteristics, the risk index of human settlements decreased gradually from the southwestern to the northeastern, northwestern, and northern parts of China. The risk index of human settlement spaces differed significantly, with obvious block aggregation of spatial-distribution characteristics. Third, for relevant factor characteristics, between 2003 and 2012, the temporal change in vulnerability is relatively stable, with a slight increase in functionality and a slight decrease in adaptability. Spatially, Qinghai, Tibet, southwestern China, Guangdong, Guangxi, Beijing, and Tianjin had relatively high vulnerability in human settlements; Beijing, Tianjin, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang had the best functionality; Hunan and Sichuan had relatively high stress; and Guangdong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang had relatively stronger adaptability. Further consideration and discussion are required on the environmental risks for different social groups and at different geographical scales, as well as on the uncertainty and long-term features of environmental risks in addition to environmental justice issues. View Full-Text
Keywords: human settlement perspective; environmental risk; risk index model; entropy weight method; provincial regions human settlement perspective; environmental risk; risk index model; entropy weight method; provincial regions

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, S.; Li, X.; Li, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bao, T. Initial Evaluation of Provincial-Level Environmental Risks from the Perspective of Human Settlements. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1259.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top