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Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1104;

Maize Processing Waste Water Upcycling in Mexico: Recovery of Arabinoxylans for Probiotic Encapsulation

Research Center for Food and Development, CIAD, A.C. 83304 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
Department of Medicine, University of Sonora, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
Department of Polymers and Materials, University of Sonora, 83000 Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thomas A. Trabold
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Food Waste Management and Utilization)
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Maize is a major source of food in Mexico. In order to improve its nutritional value, maize kernel is exposed to an alkali treatment that generates large volumes of waste water containing gelling arabinoxylan. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the capability of maize waste water arabinoxylans (MWAX) to encapsulate probiotics. The rheological, structural, and microstructural characteristics of this bio-based material were also investigated. MWAX gels at 10% (w/v) were able to encapsulate Bifidobacterium as probiotic model. The MWAX gel containing 1 × 107 CFU/mL of probiotics presented a storage (G′) and loss (G″) moduli of 50 and 11 Pa, respectively. The average mesh size of the MWAX gel was around 11 times smaller than the Bifidobacterium cell magnitude. MWAX gels with or without probiotics were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The interior of the Bifidobacterium loaded gels was composed of a pore-like network of MWAX through which probiotics were distributed. The probiotic encapsulating MWAX gels appeared to be less porous than the empty gels. MWAX capability to encapsulate Bifidobacterium may be important in designing probiotic encapsulating biodegradable gels and could represent an opportunity in sustainable food waste management and utilization through upcycling to value-added products. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste water; food industry; polysaccharide; gels; value-added products waste water; food industry; polysaccharide; gels; value-added products

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Paz-Samaniego, R.; Carvajal-Millan, E.; Sotelo-Cruz, N.; Brown, F.; Rascón-Chu, A.; López-Franco, Y.L.; Lizardi-Mendoza, J. Maize Processing Waste Water Upcycling in Mexico: Recovery of Arabinoxylans for Probiotic Encapsulation. Sustainability 2016, 8, 1104.

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