Next Article in Journal
Application of Environmental Input-Output Analysis for Corporate and Product Environmental Footprints—Learnings from Three Cases
Next Article in Special Issue
Policy Instruments for Eco-Innovation in Asian Countries
Previous Article in Journal
Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index Estimation of Soil Moisture under Different Tree Species
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of Environmental Sustainability in Health Care Organizations
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(9), 11418-11437;

The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World

Urban Studies Program, Simon Fraser University, 2nd floor, 515 West Hastings Str., Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3, Canada
School of Public Policy, Simon Fraser University, 3rd floor, 515 West Hastings Str., Vancouver, BC V6B 5K3, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [880 KB, uploaded 25 August 2015]   |  


In modern times, efforts to construct sustainable alternative neighbourhood scale developments date to isolated voluntary initiatives in 1970s Europe and the United States. Since about 2006, they have increased rapidly in popularity. They now go by many names: ecodistricts, écoquartiers, eco-cities, zero/low-carbon/carbon-positive cities, ecopolises, ecobarrios, One Planet Communities, and solar cities. They have become frames—sometimes the dominant frame—used to orient the construction of new pieces of a city in a growing number of countries. Despite numerous standardization efforts, the field of ecourban neighbourhood planning and practice lacks a consistent cross-cultural understanding of what constitutes meaningful ecourbanism in specific economic, political, ecological, social, and design-based terms. Ecourban neighbourhood projects also respond to strictly local challenges and opportunities and express themselves in fragmented ways in different contexts. This article presents an original typology of ecourbanism as the integration of seven extreme type principles. We developed this typology through an abductive approach, or the back and forth testing of observed practices with arguments advanced in theories of sustainable development, planning and urban studies. While ecourban neighbourhood developments by definition express integrative goals, this typology permits assessment of the extent to which outcomes are being achieved in terms of each specific principle. We define and present a limiting case for each of these extreme type principles. Rather than attempting to render different standards equivalent across national contexts, this typology-based approach to understand the outcomes of ecourban neighbourhood developments promises a means to facilitate orienting these developments toward higher levels of integration within a common set of principled boundaries, as they are developed around the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: eco-urbanism; eco-districts; green building; sustainable neighbourhood development eco-urbanism; eco-districts; green building; sustainable neighbourhood development

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Holden, M.; Li, C.; Molina, A. The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World. Sustainability 2015, 7, 11418-11437.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top