The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World
2. Research Questions and Methods
|Extreme Type||Key Principle|
|Econ-urban||To shift economic growth in cities toward greener products and forms; pursuit of green capitalism.|
|Ecol-urban||Lighter footprint living with energy and materials efficiency built in to design and technology, as well as the ability to directly experience wild nature.|
|Living-urban||Complete community development with a view toward wellbeing, liveability, and resilience to shocks from outside the neighbourhood.|
|Local-urban||Offers a sense of self-determination and active participation in all aspects of local life within the circumscribed neighbourhood.|
|Democ-urban||Reformulates citizenship at the local scale, and offers deliberative, community-based decision-making, with a suggestion about how this will assist in changing values and behaviours.|
|Diverse-urban||Accentuates and generates value from the mixing of diverse social, economic, and cultural offerings of urban life.|
|Equi-urban||Prioritizes redressing inequalities and injustices via attention to targeted groups’ needs.|
3. Origins of Contemporary Ecourbanism
4. Inscribing Ecourban Neighbourhood Development in Integrated Space
5. Limiting Cases and the Bounds of Integrative Practice
6. Conclusion: The Value of Seeing Axes of Difference in Ecourban Neighbourhood Development Practice
Conflicts of Interest
References and Notes
- Downton, P.F. Ecopolis: Architecture and Cities for a Changing Climate; CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood, Australia, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Joss, S.; Cowley, R.; Tomozeiu, D. Towards the “ubiquitous eco-city”: An analysis of the internationalization of eco-city policy and practice. Urban Res. Pract. 2013, 6, 54–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Baeumler, A.; Chen, M.; Dastur, A.; Zhang, Y.; Filewood, R.; Al-Jamal, K.; Peterson, C.; Randale, M.; Pinnoi, N. Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City (SSTEC): A Case Study of an Emerging Eco-City in China; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Charlot-Valdieu, C.; Outrequin, P. Les écoquartiers, Mode d'emploi; Eyrolles: Paris, France, 2009. (In French) [Google Scholar]
- Charlot-Valdieu, C.; Outrequin, P. L'urbanisme durable: Concevoir un écoquartier, 2nd ed.; Éditions du Moniteur: Paris, France, 2011. (In French) [Google Scholar]
- Ruano, M. Ecourbanism: Sustainable Human Settlements. 60 Case Studies; Gustavo Gill: Barcelona, Spain, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Ministrie de l’Ecologie, du Developpement Durable et de l’Energie. Le Plan D’Actions: Ville Durable. Available online: http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Le-plan-d-actions-Villedurable.html (accessed on 16 December 2014). (In French)
- Sabard, M. Ecodistrict: A sustainable and desirable urban project? Or, how to avoid being led by technical solutions. Available online: http://www.ecowebtown.eu/n_3/it/sabard_en.html#_ftn4 (accessed on 16 December 2014).
- Criterion Planners. A global survey of urban sustainability rating tools. Available online: http://crit.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/criterion_planners_sustainability_ratings_tool.pdf (accessed on 16 December 2014).
- Winston, N. Urban Regeneration for Sustainable Development: The Role of Sustainable Housing? Eur. Plan. Stud. 2009, 17, 1781–1796. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barton, H.; Kleiner, D. Innovative Neighbourhood Projects. In Sustainable Communities: The Potential of Eco-Neighbourhoods, 2nd ed.; Barton, H., Ed.; Earthscan: London, UK, 2000; pp. 66–85. [Google Scholar]
- Barton, H. (Ed.) Sustainable Communities: The Potential of Eco-Neighbourhoods, 2nd ed.; Earthscan: London, UK, 2000.
- Murayama, A.; Sharifi, A. Viability of using global standards for neighbourhood sustainability assessment: Insights from a comparative case study. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 2014, 58, 1–23. [Google Scholar]
- Joss, S.; Tomoseiu, D.; Cowley, R. Eco-Cities—A Global Survey; International Eco-cities Initiative: Westminster, UK, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Joss, S. Eco-Cities: The mainstreaming of urban sustainability: Key characteristics and driving factors. Int. J. Sustain. Dev. Plan. 2011, 6, 268–285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Blok, A. Greening cosmopolitan urbanism? On the transnational mobility of low-carbon formats in Northern European and East Asian cities. Environ. Plan. A 2012, 44, 2327–2343. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Miles, M.B.; Huberman, A.M. Qualitative Data Analysis, 2nd ed.; Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, USA, 1994. [Google Scholar]
- Campbell, S. Green cities, growing cities, just cities? J. Am. Plan. Assoc. 1996, 62, 296–312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ecocity Builders. Richard Register. Available online: http://www.ecocitybuilders.org/richard-register/ (accessed on 16 December 2014).
- Roseland, M. Dimensions of the eco-city. Cities 1997, 14, 197–202. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Global Ecovillage Network Europe. What is an Ecovillage? Available online: http://gen-europe.org/ecovillages/about-ecovillages/index.htm (accessed on 16 December 2014).
- Joss, S.; Molella, A. The eco-city as urban technology: Perspectives on Caofeidian International Eco-City (China). J. Urban Technol. 2013, 20, 1–14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- De Jong, M.; Joss, S.; Schraven, D.; Zhan, C.; Weijnen, M. Sustainable-smart-resilient-low carbon-eco-knowledge cities; making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanization. J. Cleaner Prod. 2015. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Yu, L. Low carbon eco-city: New approach for Chinese urbanisation. Habitat Int. 2014, 44, 102–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rapoport, E. Utopian visions and real estate dreams: The Eco-city past, present and future. Geogr. Compass 2014, 8, 137–149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations Environment Program. 21 Issues for the 21st Century: Results of the UNEP Foresight Process. On Emerging Environmental Issues; UNEP: Nairobi, Kenya, 2012; Available online: http://www.unep.org/pdf/Foresight_Report-21_Issues_for_the_21st_Century.pdf (accessed on 17 December 2014).
- United Nations Environment Program. Sustainable, Resource Efficient Cities—Making it Happen! UNEP: Nairobi, Kenya, 2011. [Google Scholar]
- Suzuki, H.; Dastur, A.; Moffatt, S.; Yabuki, N.; Maruyama, H. Eco2 Cities: Ecological Cities as Economic Cities; World Bank: Washington, DC, USA, 2010; Available online: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2010/01/12229310/eco2-cities-ecological-cities-economic-cities (accessed on 16 December 2014).
- Betsill, M.M. Mitigating Climate Change in US Cities: Opportunities and Obstacles. Local Environ. 2001, 6, 393–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bulkeley, H.; Betsill, M.M. Cities and Climate Change: Urban Sustainability and Global Environmental Governance; Routledge: London, UK, 2003. [Google Scholar]
- Wilbanks, T.J.; Sathaye, J. Integrating mitigation and adaptation as responses to climate change: A synthesis. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang. 2007, 12, 957–962. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jabareen, Y.R. Sustainable urban forms: Their typologies, models, and concepts. J. Plan. Educ. Res. 2006, 26, 38–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Marshall, R. (Ed.) Waterfronts in Post-Industrial Cities; Spon Press: London, UK, 2001.
- Millspaugh, M. The inner harbor story. Urban Land 2003, 62, 36–41. [Google Scholar]
- Desfor, G.; Jorgensen, J. Flexible urban governance: The case of Copenhagen’s recent waterfront development. Eur. Plan. Stud. 2004, 12, 479–496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dovey, K. Fluid City: Transforming Melbourne’s waterfront; University of New South Wales Press: Sydney, Australia, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Bunting, T.; Rutherford, T. Transitions in an era of globalization and world city growth. In Canadian Cities in Transition, 3rd ed.; Bunting, T., Filion, P., Eds.; Oxford University Press: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2006; pp. 65–85. [Google Scholar]
- Lejano, R.P.; Wessells, A.T. Community and economic development: Seeking common ground in discourse and in practice. Urban Stud. 2006, 43, 1469–1489. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Butler, T. Re-Urbanizing London Docklands: Gentrification, suburbanization or new urbanism? Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 2007, 31, 759–781. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bunce, S.; Desfor, G. Introduction to “Political ecologies of urban waterfront transformation”. Cities 2007, 24, 251–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Desfor, G.; Laidley, J.; Stevens, Q.; Schubert, D. (Eds.) Transforming Urban Waterfronts: Fixity and Flow; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2011.
- Brownill, S. London Docklands revisited: The dynamics of waterfront development. In Transforming Urban Waterfronts; Desfor, G., Laidley, J., Eds.; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2011; pp. 121–142. [Google Scholar]
- Alker, S.; Joy, V.; Roberts, P.; Smith, N. The Definition of Brownfield. J. Environ. Plan. Manag. 2000, 43, 49–69. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fainstein, S. The Just City; Cornell University Press: Ithaca, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Wessells, A.T. Place-Based conservation and urban waterways: Watershed Activism in the bottom of the basin. Nat. Resour. J. 2010, 50, 539–557. [Google Scholar]
- McDonald, S.; Malys, N.; Maliene, V. Urban regeneration for sustainable communities: A case study. Ukio Technologinis ir Ekonominis Vystymas 2009, 15, 49–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Climate Group. Eco-civilization: China’s blueprint for a new era. Insight briefing. Available online: http://www.theclimategroup.org/_assets/files/China-Ecocivilisation.pdf (accessed on 15 December 2014).
- Souami, T. Ecoquartiers, Secrets de Fabrication, Analyse Critique d'exemples Européens; Éditions les Carnets de l’Info, Coll. Modes de ville: Paris, France, 2009. (In French) [Google Scholar]
- Wu, F. Editorial: China’s eco-cities. Geoforum 2012, 43, 169–171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chang, I.C.; Sheppard, E. China’s eco-cities as variegated urban sustainability: Dongtan eco-city and Chongming eco-island. J. Urban Technol. 2013, 20, 57–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Böhm, S.; Pervez Bharucha, Z.; Pretty, J.N. (Eds.) Ecocultures: Blueprints for Sustainable Communities; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2015.
- Newton, P. Liveable and sustainable? Socio-technical challenges for twenty-first-century cities. J. Urban Technol. 2012, 19, 81–102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jessop, B. The Crisis of the National Spatiotemporal Fix and the Ecological Dominance of Globalizing Capitalism. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 2001, 24, 273–310. [Google Scholar]
- Cook, I.; Ward, K. Relational comparisons: The assembling of Cleveland’s waterfront plan. Urban Geogr. 2012, 33, 774–795. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nichols, C.A.; Laros, J.A. Inside the Civano Project: A Case Study of Large-Scale Sustainable Neighborhood Development; McGraw-Hill: New York, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Chatterton, P. Towards an agenda for post-carbon cities: Lessons from LILAC, the UK’s first ecological, affordable, cohousing community. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 2013, 37, 1654–1674. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Book, K.; Eskilsson, L.; Khan, J. Governing the balance between sustainability and competitiveness in urban planning: The case of the Orestad model. Environ. Policy Gov. 2010, 20, 382–396. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Metzger, J.; Olsson, A.R. (Eds.) Sustainable Stockholm; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2013.
- Daly, H. Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development; Beacon Press: Boston, MA, USA, 1997. [Google Scholar]
- Fisher, D.R.; Freudenburg, W.R. Ecological modernization and its critics: Assessing the past and looking toward the future. Soc. Nat. Resour. 2001, 14, 701–709. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Holden, M.; Scerri, A. Justification, compromise and test: Developing a pragmatic theory of critique to understand the outcomes of urban redevelopment. Plan. Theory 2014. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1987. [Google Scholar]
- Keil, R. Sustaining modernity, modernizing nature. In The Sustainable Development Paradox; Kreuger, R., Gibbs, D., Eds.; Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA, 2007; pp. 41–65. [Google Scholar]
- Mumford, L. The City in History; Harcourt, Brace &World: New York, NY, USA, 1961. [Google Scholar]
- Jacobs, J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities; Doubleday: New York, NY, USA, 1961. [Google Scholar]
- Lovelock, J. Gaia: A new look at life on Earth; Oxford University Press: New York, NY, USA, 1987. [Google Scholar]
- Hough, M. Cities and Natural Process; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Soleri, P.; Strohmeier, J. The Urban Ideal—Conversations with Paolo Soleri; Berkeley Hills Books: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Girardet, H. Cities, People, Planet: Livable Cities for a Sustainable World; Wiley-Academy: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Seyfang, G.; Smith, A. Grassroots innovations for sustainable development: Towards a new research and policy agenda. Environ. Polit. 2007, 16, 584–603. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jarvis, H. Saving space, sharing time: Integrated infrastructures of daily life in cohousing. Environ. Plan. A 2011, 43, 560–577. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fainstein, S. Cities and Diversity: Should we want it? Can we plan for it? Urban Aff. Rev. 2005, 41, 3–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Agyeman, J.; Evans, T. Toward just sustainability in urban communities: Building equity rights with sustainable solutions. Ann. Am. Acad. Polit. Soc. Sci. 2003, 590, 35–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cuthill, M. Strengthening the “social” in sustainable development: Developing a conceptual framework for social sustainability in a rapid growth urban region in Australia. Sustain. Dev. 2010, 18, 362–373. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bradley, K.; Hult, A.; Cars, G. From eco-modernizing to political ecologizing. In Sustainable Stockholm; Metzger, J., Olsson, A.R., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK, 2013; pp. 168–194. [Google Scholar]
- Hajer, M. The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process; Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK, 1995. [Google Scholar]
- Through processes of ecological modernization, whereby policy aims explicitly to “decouple” economic growth from environmental harm, and thus to “green” capitalism, cities are also recognizing the economic wins available to those able to green their urban brand [76,77].
- Heeg, S. Flows of capital and fixity of bricks in the built environment of Boston: Property-Led development in urban planning? In Transforming Urban Waterfronts: Fixity and Flow; Desfor, G., Laidley, J., Stevens, Q., Schubert, D., Eds.; Routledge: New York, NY, USA, 2011; pp. 274–294. [Google Scholar]
- Mare, E.C. Sustainable Cities: An Oxymoron? Village Design Institute: Seattle, WA, USA, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Renauld, V. Fabrication et Usage des écoquartiers; Presse polytechnique et universitaire romande: Lausanne, Switzerland, 2014. (In French) [Google Scholar]
- Crabtree, L. Disintegrated houses: Exploring ecofeminist housing and urban design options. Anitpode 2006, 38, 711–734. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- EcoDistricts. The EcoDistricts Protocol Executive Summary; EcoDistricts: Portland, OR, USA, 2014. [Google Scholar]
- Capps, K.; Can, D.C. lead the way to a 21st century waterfront? The Atlantic Cities. Available online: http://www.theatlanticcities.com/design/2012/08/can-dc-lead-way-21st-century-waterfront/3097/ (accessed on 16 December 2014).
- Global Ecovillage Network. Sociocracy in GENNA. Available online: http://sites.ecovillage.org/node/5397 (accessed on 5 May 2015).
- Freytag, T.; Gossling, S.; Mossner, S. Living the green city: Freiburg’s Solarsiedlung between narratives and practices of sustainable urban development. Local Environ. 2014, 19, 644–659. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Failure to innovate within the urban revitalization model has also been maligned by economic development officials in terms of stymying more effective revitalization efforts in North American and Europe. Richard Florida  (p. 85) quotes an economic developer as saying: “If economic developers want to do that today, they should move to China. That’s where all the big corporate projects are or are heading. Revitalizing older cities in North America and Europe increasingly depends on being able to support lots of smaller activities, groups, and projects.”
- World Habitat Awards. “Habitat para la Mujer”—the Maria Auxiliadora Community. Available online: http://www.worldhabitatawards.org/winners-and-finalists/project-details.cfm?lang=00&theProjectID=98370925–15C5-F4C0–9982943D30EEECD3 (accessed on 1 May 2015).
- Florida, R. The Great Reset: How New Ways of Living and Working Drive Post-Crash Prosperity; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 2010. [Google Scholar]
© 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Holden, M.; Li, C.; Molina, A. The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World. Sustainability 2015, 7, 11418-11437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70911418
Holden M, Li C, Molina A. The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World. Sustainability. 2015; 7(9):11418-11437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70911418Chicago/Turabian Style
Holden, Meg, Charling Li, and Ana Molina. 2015. "The Emergence and Spread of Ecourban Neighbourhoods around the World" Sustainability 7, no. 9: 11418-11437. https://doi.org/10.3390/su70911418