Next Article in Journal
Using Urban-Carrying Capacity as a Benchmark for Sustainable Urban Development: An Empirical Study of Beijing
Previous Article in Journal
Livelihood Strategies in Shaxi, Southwest China: Conceptualizing Mountain–Valley Interactions as a Human–Environment System

A Crossing Method for Quinoa

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, 113 Johnson Hall, Pullman, WA 99164-6420, USA
Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Højbakkegaard Alle 13, DK-2630 Taastrup, Denmark
Fundación PROINPA, Americo Vespucio Nro 538, 3er piso, La Paz, Bolivia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Sustainability 2015, 7(3), 3230-3243;
Received: 20 December 2014 / Revised: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 11 March 2015 / Published: 17 March 2015
As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: quinoa; quinoa hybridization; quinoa breeding quinoa; quinoa hybridization; quinoa breeding
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Peterson, A.; Jacobsen, S.-E.; Bonifacio, A.; Murphy, K. A Crossing Method for Quinoa. Sustainability 2015, 7, 3230-3243.

AMA Style

Peterson A, Jacobsen S-E, Bonifacio A, Murphy K. A Crossing Method for Quinoa. Sustainability. 2015; 7(3):3230-3243.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peterson, Adam, Sven-Erik Jacobsen, Alejandro Bonifacio, and Kevin Murphy. 2015. "A Crossing Method for Quinoa" Sustainability 7, no. 3: 3230-3243.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop