Next Article in Journal
A Computational Method based on Radio Frequency Technologies for the Analysis of Accessibility of Disabled People in Sustainable Cities
Next Article in Special Issue
A Method to Evaluate the Stimulation of a Real World Field of View by Means of a Spectroradiometric Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Are Australian Universities Making Good Use of ICT for CSR Reporting?
Previous Article in Special Issue
Urban Lighting Project for a Small Town: Comparing Citizens and Authority Benefits
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2015, 7(11), 14917-14934;

Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

Facoltà di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università degli Studi di Enna “Kore”, Cittadella Universitaria, Enna 94100, Italy
Siciliacque S.p.A., Via Gioacchino di Marzo, Palermo 90144, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Francesco Asdrubali and Pietro Buzzini
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
Full-Text   |   PDF [393 KB, uploaded 6 November 2015]   |  


This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP) resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail point for flour, grains, paste, chocolate covered nuts and spreadable cream produced from almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts grown and transformed in Italy and for peanuts grown in Argentina and transformed in Italy. Data from literature was used to evaluate CFP of raw materials, emissions from transport and packing were calculated using existing models, while emissions deriving from transformation were calculated empirically by multiplying the power of production lines (electrical and/or thermal) by its productivity. All values were reported in kg of CO2 equivalent for each kg of packed product (net weight). Resulting values ranged between 1.2 g of CO2/kg for a 100 g bag of almond to 4.8 g of CO2/kg for the 100 g bag of chocolate covered almond. The calculation procedure can be well used for similar cases of large consumer food productions. View Full-Text
Keywords: transformed food; almond; hazelnut; pistachio; peanut transformed food; almond; hazelnut; pistachio; peanut

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Volpe, R.; Messineo, S.; Volpe, M.; Messineo, A. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products. Sustainability 2015, 7, 14917-14934.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top