A Referential Methodology for Education on Sustainable Tourism Development
2. Education for Sustainable Tourism Development
- Social responsibility is the perceived level of interdependence of and social concern for others, society and the environment. The sub-dimensions of social responsibility are listed as global justice and disparities, altruism and empathy and global interconnectedness and personal responsibility.
- Global competence is having an open mind while actively seeking to understand others’ cultural norms and expectations and leveraging this knowledge to interact, communicate and work effectively outside one’s environment. The sub-dimensions of global competence are self-awareness, intercultural communication and global knowledge.
- Global civic engagement is the demonstration of action and/or the predisposition toward recognizing local, state, national and global community issues and responding through actions, such as volunteerism, political activism and community participation. The sub-dimensions of global civic engagement are involvement in civic organizations’ political voice and glocal civic activism.
3. Background Information of the Educational Program
4. Design of the Educational Program
- Define sustainable tourism,
- Attain cross-cultural understanding and engage in bi-national collaborations,
- Discuss and recommend how sustainable rural tourism development can aid the improvement of QoL at a destination.
- ecological vitality: quality of local and global environment with access to nature
- governance: confidence in each level of government and freedom from discrimination
- material wellbeing: satisfaction with financial situation and financial future
- psychological wellbeing: issues of self-esteem, autonomy and sense of purpose
- physical health: physical health and experience of disability or long-term illness.
- time and work-life balance: senses of stress, control over their lives and overwork
- social vitality and connection: interpersonal trust, social support and community participation
- education: participation in educational activities, discrimination
- cultural vitality: participation in arts and culture, sport and recreation activities
- Meet with Tasköprü Chamber of Agriculture and take part in the garlic harvest
- Lunch at a village house with the community
- A visit to the Municipality
- A visit to the archeological site at Pompeipolis, meeting with the archeologists and the site coordinator
- A visit to the Tasköprü Festival area (a local festival held after the garlic harvest)
- Dinner with the excavation team
- Observe local community traditions, food preparation, economic activities, religious practices and arts and folkloric dances
- Ask questions of stakeholders and community members
- Participate in a local festival and community service
- Discuss issues with group members
- Reflect alone
- A brief overview of what each indicator means and how it connects to sustainability in the Kastamonu community.
- To describe ways in which residents can achieve sustainability through tourism development in the Kastamonu community.
- To list interesting sustainability-related facts in the Kastamonu community.
5. Evaluation of the Educational Program
6. Findings and Discussion
|All Students||Turkish Students||American Students|
|Paired Difference Mean||t-score||Significance (2-tailed)||Paired Difference Mean||t-score||Significance (2-tailed)||Paired Difference Mean||t-score||Significance (2-tailed)|
|Social Responsibility: Global Justice and Disparities|
|It is OK if some people in the world have more opportunities than others.||0.250||1.760||0.090||0.385||1.806||0.096||0.133||0.695||0.499|
|Global Competence: Intercultural Communication|
|I often adapt my communication style to other people’s cultural background.||–0.393||–2.645||0.013||–0.462||–1.585||0.139||–0.333||–2.646||0.019|
|I am able to communicate in different ways with people from different cultures.||–0.357||–2.423||0.022||–0.154||–1.477||0.165||–0.667||–2.870||0.012|
|Global Competence: Global Knowledge|
|I am informed of current issues that impact international relationships.||–0.222||–2.280||0.031||0.000||0.000||1.000||–0.429||–3.122||0.008|
|I feel comfortable expressing my views regarding a pressing global problem in front of a group of people.||–0.593||–3.309||0.003||–0.615||–2.309||0.040||–0.571||–2.280||0.040|
|Global Civic Engagement: Involvement in Civic Organizations|
|Over the next six months, I plan to do volunteer work to help individuals and communities abroad.||–0.357||–2.173||0.039||–0.462||–2.144||0.053||–0.267||–1.075||0.301|
|Global Civic Engagement: Political Voice|
|Over the next six months, I will contact a newspaper or radio to express my concerns about global environmental, social or political problems.||–0.357||–1.987||0.057||–0.462||–2.144||0.053||–0.267||–.939||0.364|
|Over the next six months, I will display and/or wear badges/stickers/signs that promote a more just and equitable world.||–0.429||–2.714||0.011||–0.231||–1.148||0.273||–0.600||–2.553||0.023|
|Over the next six months, I will express my views about international politics on a website, blog or chat room.||–0.250||–1.491||0.148||–0.385||–2.739||0.018||–0.133||–0.459||0.653|
|Over the next six months, I will sign an e-mail or written petition seeking to help individuals or communities abroad.||–0.071||–0.386||0.702||–0.385||–2.132||0.054||0.200||0.676||0.510|
|Statements||Mean||Standard Deviation||Paired Difference Mean||t-score||Significance (2-tailed)|
|I think that most people around the world get what they are entitled to have.||pre-||1.86||0.891||0.107||0.682||0.501|
|It is OK if some people in the world have more opportunities than others||pre-||2.25||0.752||0.250||1.760||0.090 *|
|I think that people around the world get the rewards and punishments they deserve.||pre-||1.81||0.681||−0.037||−0.214||0.832|
|In times of scarcity. it is sometimes necessary to use force against others to get what you need.||pre-||1.86||0.970||0.214||1.362||0.184|
|The world is generally a fair place.||pre-||1.89||0.567||0.071||0.570||0.573|
|No one country or group of people should dominate and exploit others in the world.||pre-||4.25||1.143||−0.036||−0.126||0.901|
|The needs of the worlds’ most fragile people are more pressing than my own.||pre-||3.59||1.010||−0.148||−0.941||0.355|
|I think that many people around the world are poor because they do not work hard enough.||pre-||1.82||0.772||−0.036||−0.328||0.745|
|I respect and am concerned with the rights of all people globally.||pre-||4.30||0.724||0.148||1.072||0.294|
|Developed/Developing nations have the obligation to make incomes around the world as equitable as possible||pre-||3.43||0.879||0.107||0.550||0.587|
|American/Turkish people should emulate the more sustainable and equitable behaviors of other developed/developing countries||pre-||4.11||0.786||−0.107||−0.769||0.449|
|I do not feel responsible for the world’s inequities and problems.||pre-||2.64||1.062||0.000||0.000||1.000|
|I think in terms of giving back to the global society.||pre-||3.71||0.937||−0.036||−0.238||0.813|
|I am confident that I can thrive in any culture or country.||pre-||3.61||1.066||−0.214||−0.902||0.375|
|I know how to develop a place to help mitigate a global environmental or social problem.||pre-||3.36||0.731||−0.143||−0.891||0.381|
|I know several ways in which I can make a difference on some of this world’s most worrisome problems.||pre-||3.43||0.920||−0.107||−0.682||0.501|
|I am able to get other people to care about global problems that concern me.||pre-||3.75||0.967||−0.250||−1.567||0.129|
|I unconsciously adapt my behavior and mannerisms when I am interacting with people of other cultures.||pre-||3.96||0.744||−0.036||−0.328||0.745|
|I often adapt my communication style to other people’s cultural background||pre-||3.71||0.763||−0.393||−2.645||0.013 **|
|I am able to communicate in different ways with people from different cultures.||pre-||3.79||0.630||−0.429||−3.057||0.005 ***|
|I am fluent in more than one language.||pre-||2.71||1.410||−0.179||−1.307||0.202|
|I welcome working with people who have different cultural values from me.||pre-||4.52||0.580||0.148||1.162||0.256|
|I am able to mediate interactions between people of different cultures by helping them understand each other’s values and practices.||pre-||3.68||0.670||−0.357||−2.423||0.022 **|
|I am informed of current issues that impact international relationships.||pre-||3.59||0.797||−0.222||−2.280||0.031 **|
|I feel comfortable expressing my views regarding a pressing global problem in front of a group of people.||pre-||3.26||0.764||−0.593||−3.309||0.003 ***|
|I am able to write an opinion letter to a local media source expressing my concerns over global inequalities and issues.||pre-||3.54||0.793||−0.179||−1.000||0.326|
|Over the next 6 months. I plan to do volunteer work to help individuals and communities abroad.||pre-||3.21||1.031||−0.357||−2.173||0.039 **|
|Over the next 6 months. I will participate in a walk, dance, run, or bike ride in support of a global cause.||pre-||3.71||1.117||−0.071||−0.493||0.626|
|Over the next 6 months. I will volunteer my time working to help individuals or communities abroad.||pre-||3.25||0.887||−0.071||−0.420||0.678|
|Over the next 6 months. I plan to get involved with a global humanitarian organization or project.||pre-||3.21||0.876||0.000||0.000||1.000|
|Over the next 6 months. I plan to help international people who are in difficulty.||pre-||3.54||0.962||0.071||0.465||0.646|
|Over the next 6 months. I plan to get involved in a program that addresses the global environmental crisis.||pre-||3.46||0.999||−0.036||−0.238||0.813|
|Over the next 6 months. I will work informally with a group toward solving a global humanitarian problem.||pre-||2.93||0.813||−0.286||−1.769||0.088 *|
|Over the next 6 months. I will pay a membership or make a cash donation to a global charity.||pre-||3.04||1.105||0.000||0.000||1.000|
|Over the next 6 months. I will contact a newspaper or radio to express my concerns about global environmental, social, or political problems.||pre-||2.32||0.819||−0.357||−1.987||0.057 *|
|Over the next 6 months. I will express my views about international politics on a website, blog, or chat room.||pre-||3.04||1.105||−0.250||−1.491||0.148|
|Over the next 6 months. I will sign an e-mail or written petition seeking to help individuals or communities abroad.||pre-||3.29||1.049||−0.071||−0.386||0.702|
|Over the next 6 months. I will contact or visit someone in government to seek public action on global issues and concerns.||pre-||2.43||0.836||−0.143||−1.000||0.326|
|Over the next 6 months. I will display and/or wear badges/stickers/signs that promote a more just and equitable world.||pre-||3.14||1.044||−0.429||−2.714||0.011 **|
|Over the next 6 months. I will participate in a campus forum. Live music or theater performance or other event where young people express their views about global problems.||pre-||3.57||0.959||−0.036||−0.197||0.846|
|If at all possible. I will always buy fair-trade or locally grown products and brands.||pre-||4.07||0.858||−0.036||−0.273||0.787|
|I will deliberately buy brands and products that are known to be good stewards of marginalized people and places.||pre-||3.79||0.876||0.071||0.493||0.626|
|I will boycott brands or products that are known to harm marginalized global people and places.||pre-||3.71||0.854||0.107||0.648||0.523|
Conflicts of Interest
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Hatipoglu, B.; Ertuna, B.; Sasidharan, V. A Referential Methodology for Education on Sustainable Tourism Development. Sustainability 2014, 6, 5029-5048. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6085029
Hatipoglu B, Ertuna B, Sasidharan V. A Referential Methodology for Education on Sustainable Tourism Development. Sustainability. 2014; 6(8):5029-5048. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6085029Chicago/Turabian Style
Hatipoglu, Burcin, Bengi Ertuna, and Vinod Sasidharan. 2014. "A Referential Methodology for Education on Sustainable Tourism Development" Sustainability 6, no. 8: 5029-5048. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6085029