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Open AccessArticle

Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths

1
Department of Tourism Information, Aletheia University, New Taipei City 251, Taiwan
2
Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
3
Institute of Service Management, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Penghu 880, Taiwan
4
School of Business, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sustainability 2014, 6(7), 4658-4684; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074658
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 13 July 2014 / Accepted: 17 July 2014 / Published: 23 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Special issue of Sustainable Asia Conference 2014)
Torespondto the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, this paper investigates the minimal-carbon-footprint time-dependent heterogeneous-fleet vehicle routing problem with alternative paths (MTHVRPP). This finds a route with the smallestcarbon footprint, instead of the shortestroute distance, which is the conventional approach, to serve a number of customers with a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in cases wherethere may not be only one path between each pair of customers, and the vehicle speed differs at different times of the day. Inheriting from the NP-hardness of the vehicle routing problem, the MTHVRPP is also NP-hard. This paper further proposes a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve this problem. The solution representedbyour GA determines the customer serving ordering of each vehicle type. Then, the capacity check is used to classify multiple routes of each vehicle type, and the path selection determines the detailed paths of each route. Additionally, this paper improves the energy consumption model used for calculating the carbon footprint amount more precisely. Compared with the results without alternative paths, our experimental results show that the alternative path in this experimenthas a significant impact on the experimental results in terms of carbon footprint. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon footprint; vehicle routing problem; heterogeneous fleet; alternative path; genetic algorithm carbon footprint; vehicle routing problem; heterogeneous fleet; alternative path; genetic algorithm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, W.-Y.; Lin, C.-C.; Chiu, C.-R.; Tsao, Y.-S.; Wang, Q. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths. Sustainability 2014, 6, 4658-4684. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074658

AMA Style

Liu W-Y, Lin C-C, Chiu C-R, Tsao Y-S, Wang Q. Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths. Sustainability. 2014; 6(7):4658-4684. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074658

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Wan-Yu; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Chiu, Ching-Ren; Tsao, You-Song; Wang, Qunwei. 2014. "Minimizing the Carbon Footprint for the Time-Dependent Heterogeneous-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Alternative Paths" Sustainability 6, no. 7: 4658-4684. https://doi.org/10.3390/su6074658

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