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Correction published on 22 May 2014, see Sustainability 2014, 6(5), 3122-3123.

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2014, 6(4), 1761-1775;

Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future

Department of Value and Decision Science, Graduate School of Decision Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-W9-43 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
The United Nations University Institute of Advanced Studies (UNU-IAS), Pacifico-Yokohama, 1-1-1 Minato Mirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-8502, Japan
Department of International Development Engineering (IDE), Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 14-4, 2-12-1, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan
Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-20 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Integrated Policies for Sustainable Societies Area, IGES 2108-11 Kamiyamaguchi, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0115, Japan
National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba-City, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
Department of International Health, The Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2014 / Accepted: 17 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development Goals)
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One of the next major challenges for research and policy on sustainability is setting the post-2015 Development Agenda. This challenge arises as a direct result of the formal ending of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015 and as an outcome of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). The post-2015 Development Agenda is expected to include two agendas: one on human well-being to advance the MDG targets and the other on planetary well-being, which requires a safe “operating space” within the Earth’s life-support system. In contrast to the MDGs, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are meant to apply to both developing and developed countries and create a space for development within the stable functioning of the Earth’s systems. However, what might this all look like? For answers, this paper reviews the achievements and reflections of the MDGs to date and identifies new challenges entailed in the shift of development goals from “millennium” to “sustainable”. While most of the existing studies look at these two sets of issues separately, combining the two reveals two important features of the SDGs. First, SDGs need to integrate both human and planetary well-being in a goal, and second, goals, or sub-goals, need to be formulated at multiple levels, from global to local levels. While the MDGs represented no integrated goals, some of the existing proposals on SDGs include integrated goals. However, our analysis has shown that they do not present the vertical diffusion of goals. Considering both integration and diffusion in the architecture of SDGs is a remaining task. View Full-Text
Keywords: post-2015 Development Agenda; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); human well-being; planetary well-being post-2015 Development Agenda; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); human well-being; planetary well-being

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Kanie, N.; Abe, N.; Iguchi, M.; Yang, J.; Kabiri, N.; Kitamura, Y.; Mangagi, S.; Miyazawa, I.; Olsen, S.; Tasaki, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Yoshida, T.; Hayakawa, Y. Integration and Diffusion in Sustainable Development Goals: Learning from the Past, Looking into the Future. Sustainability 2014, 6, 1761-1775.

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