- freely available
Sustainability 2014, 6(11), 7883-7893; https://doi.org/10.3390/su6117883
2. Status of Ulleungdo Island
2.1. Location and Population
2.2. Load Information
2.3. Solar Energy
2.4. Wind Speed
2.5. Hydro Resources
3. Key Parameters for the Economic Analysis
3.1. Annual Real Interest Rate
3.2. Cost of Energy (COE) and Net Present Cost (NPC)
3.3. Diesel Price
|Component||Model Type||Size or Quantity||Capital Cost ($)||Replacement Cost ($)||Operation & Management Cost ($/year)||Lifetime||Other|
|PV panel||-||1 kW||1800||1800||25||20 years||80% derating factor; 37.48° slope with no tracking system; a range of 0 to 30,000 PW is considered.|
|Wind turbine||Generic 10 kW||2 units||29,000||25,000||400||15 years||25 m hub height; a range of 0 to 2500 turbines is considered.|
|Battery||Surrette 6CS25P||1 unit||1229||1229||10||-||6 V nominal voltage; 1156 Ah (6.94 kWh) nominal capacity; 9645 kWh lifetime throughput; a range of 0 to 50,000 battery-units is considered.|
|Diesel generator 1 (currently operating)||-||1 kW||0||450||0.2||15,000 h||30% minimum load ratio; the capacity of the current diesel generator is 8000 kW.|
|Diesel generator 2 (currently operating)||-||1 kW||0||450||0.2||15,000 h||30% minimum load ratio; the capacity of the current diesel generator is 4000 kW.|
|Hydro turbine (currently operating)||-||-||0||0||0||25 years||95 m available head, 75% efficiency, and 15% pipe head loss.|
|Converter||-||1 kW||800||800||10||15 years||90% efficiency; a range of 0 to 5000 kW is considered.|
4. Renewable Power Generation Systems
|Wind (# of turbines)||1725|
|Diesel generator 1 (currently used, kW)||8000|
|Working hours (diesel generator 1)||64|
|Diesel generator 2 (currently used, kW)||4000|
|Working hours (diesel generator 2)||474|
|Consumed diesel (L)||696,396|
|Battery (# of units)||32,765|
|Initial Capital ($)||125,977,680|
|Operating Cost ($/year)||6,250,551|
|Total NPC ($)||234,819,440|
|Components||Capital ($)||Replacement ($)||O&M ($)||Fuel ($)||Salvage ($)||Total ($)|
|Components||Capital ($/year)||Replacement ($/year)||O&M ($/year)||Fuel ($/year)||Salvage ($/year)||Total ($/year)|
|Diesel generator 1||512,000||1%|
|Diesel generator 2||1,503,026||2%|
- The suggested optimal solution consists of 1725 wind turbines (generic 10 kW model), 31,065 kW PV panels, a 5975 kW converter, 32,765 batteries (Surrette S6CS25P), and the retention of the two operating diesel generators (8000 kW and 4000 kW) and hydro turbine (700 kW).
- The simulation results predict an operating cost of $6,250,551 per year, an initial capital of $125,977,680, a total NPC of $234,819,440, and a renewable fraction of 97% at a $0.334 per kWh COE.
- Diesel fuel use is significantly reduced, from over 14,500,000 L to less than 700,000 L, in the simulation. It also reduces other costs, such as that of transporting fuels.
- Achieving the optimal level will require that gradual development plans be prepared for the island.
- Reducing the island’s dependency on diesel generators will require that the reliability of its electricity system be improved and that further planning consider various other energy sources.
- After a certain level of renewable energy use has been achieved, the local government and island communities should aim to install more renewable power generation facilities as an alternative to the current diesel generators.
Conflicts of Interest
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