Next Article in Journal
Identifying Social Impacts in Product Supply Chains:Overview and Application of the Social Hotspot Database
Next Article in Special Issue
Modular Lead-Bismuth Fast Reactors in Nuclear Power
Previous Article in Journal
Ecosystem-Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Caribbean Small Island Developing States: Integrating Local and External Knowledge
Previous Article in Special Issue
Optimized Design and Discussion on Middle and Large CANDLE Reactors
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2012, 4(8), 1933-1945;

Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor

Department of Nuclear Safety Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokai University Tokyo, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2012 / Revised: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 22 August 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Nuclear Energy)
PDF [799 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Our previous studies on water cooled thorium breeder reactor based on matured pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant technology concluded that reduced moderated core by arranging fuel pins in a triangular tight lattice array and using heavy water as coolant is appropriate for achieving better breeding performance and higher burn-up simultaneously [1–6]. One optimum core that produces 3.5 GW thermal energy using Th-233U oxide fuel shows a breeding ratio of 1.07 and averaged burn-up of about 80 GWd/t with long cycle length of 1300 days. The moderator to fuel volume ratio is 0.6 and required enrichment of 233U for the fresh fuel is about 7%. The coolant reactivity coefficient is negative during all cycles despite it being a large scale breeder reactor. In order to introduce this sustainable thorium reactor, three-step deployment scenario, with intermediate transition phase between current light water reactor (LWR) phase and future sustainer phase, is proposed. Both in transition phase and sustainer phase, almost the same core design can be applicable only by changing fissile materials mixed with thorium from plutonium to 233U with slight modification in the fuel assembly design. Assuming total capacity of 60 GWe in current LWR phase and reprocessing capacity of 800 ton/y with further extensions to 1600 ton/y, all LWRs will be replaced by heavy water cooled thorium reactors within about one century then thorium reactors will be kept operational owing to its potential to sustain fissile fuels while reprocessing all spent fuels until exhaustion of massive thorium resource. View Full-Text
Keywords: thorium; heavy water; deployment scenario; transition; sustainer; 233U thorium; heavy water; deployment scenario; transition; sustainer; 233U

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takaki, N.; Mardiansah, D. Core Design and Deployment Strategy of Heavy Water Cooled Sustainable Thorium Reactor. Sustainability 2012, 4, 1933-1945.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top