Sustainability Indicators for the Use of Resources—The Exergy Approach
2. The Exergy Approach
- • extent to which the quality levels of energy supply (e.g., high-temperature combustion) and demand (e.g., low-temperature heat) are matched
- • location and magnitude of energy degradation spots, resulting from e.g., heat transfer (temperature drop) or energy conversion (e.g., electricity or solar radiation into low-grade heat)
- • environmental impact of producing, reusing and recycling building materials
- • limitations (e.g., maximum thermodynamic efficiencies) and breakthrough needs (e.g., technology substitution) of complex systems
3. Exergetic Sustainable Indicators
- • They provide a measure for assessing whether the goals planned have been achieved.
- • They are very useful in making the general public comprehend the achievements that have taken place in the area of environmental protection.
- • They help the public and governments focus on certain key-issues, affecting the relevant industries.
- • They highlight the significance of the correlation between environmental problems and social and economic activities.
- • They create a framework to collect data for environmental reports and studies.
- • The building should be able to cover the exergetic needs using several different energy sources at the appropriate rate.
- • The most scarce exergetic resources, such as mineral and petrochemical fuels, should be stored and used only in special cases, such as when there is an urgent need. Use of renewable energy as much as possible.
- • Increase the efficiency of the building’s life cycle; for example, using materials with low exergy and reusability.
- • Prioritize air quality in order to protect human health and the environment.
- • Percentage of exergy which stems from renewable energy sources.
- • Percentage of electric exergy which stems from renewable energy sources.
- • Percentage of the building needs that can be met by networks of low temperature heat.
- • Overall exergy consumption [E]
- • Overall exergy consumption per unit of surface [Ea = E/A]
- • Overall exergy consumption per dweller [Ep = E/p]
- • Exergy consumption for heating [Εh]
- • Exergy consumption for heating per unit of surface [Eha = Εh/Ah]
- • Exergy consumption for heating per dweller [Ehp = Eh/p]
- • Exergy consumption for heating per degree days [Ehd = Eh/d]
- • Exergy consumption for heating per degree days and surface [Ehda = Eh/(dxA)]
- • Exergy consumption for lighting and domestic devices per dweller [Elp = El/p]
- • Exergy consumption for warm water (domestic use) per dweller [Ewp = Ew/p]
3.1. Exergy Consumption Indicators
|Product||CExC (MJ/kg)||Performance (%)|
3.2. Eco-Efficiency Indicators
4. The Case Study of an Office Building in Greece
|Material||Mass (kg)||Percentage %|
|Roof slabs||5772,53||0. 09|
|Light weight concrete||24,178,70||0.40|
|Material||Built exergy (Gj)|
|Polyvinyl chloride sheets||225,86162|
|Matrerial||CExC (Mj/Kg)||Pa (Euro/Gj)||Vp (Euro/Kg)||Fuel||Eco|
|Reinforced steel||47||16||0,869||natural gas||1,155|
|Masonry mortar||9||7,53||0,271||stone coal||4|
|Emulsion paint||3,3||16||4||natural gas||75,75|
|Gypsum fiberboard||7||7,53||0,522||stone coal||9,9|
|Ceramic tiles||3,2||16||0,15||natural gas||2,929|
|PVC sheets||82||16||20||natural gas||15,243|
|Light weight concrete||1,3||1,625||0,043||lignite||20,35|
|Epoxy resin||91||16||9||natural gas||6,18|
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© 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Koroneos, C.J.; Nanaki, E.A.; Xydis, G.A. Sustainability Indicators for the Use of Resources—The Exergy Approach. Sustainability 2012, 4, 1867-1878. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4081867
Koroneos CJ, Nanaki EA, Xydis GA. Sustainability Indicators for the Use of Resources—The Exergy Approach. Sustainability. 2012; 4(8):1867-1878. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4081867Chicago/Turabian Style
Koroneos, Christopher J., Evanthia A. Nanaki, and George A. Xydis. 2012. "Sustainability Indicators for the Use of Resources—The Exergy Approach" Sustainability 4, no. 8: 1867-1878. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4081867