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Sustainability 2012, 4(5), 958-994;

Exploring Future Impacts of Environmental Constraints on Human Development

Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 17 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 April 2012 / Published: 10 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue On the Socioeconomic and Political Outcomes of Global Climate Change)
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Environmental constraints have always had, and will always have, important consequences for human development. They have sometimes contributed to, or even caused, the reversal of such development. The possibility that such constraints, including climate change, will grow significantly this century raises the concern that the very significant advances in human development across most of the world in recent decades will slow or even reverse. We use the International Futures (IFs) integrated forecasting system to explore three scenarios: a Base Case scenario, an Environmental Challenge scenario, and an Environmental Disaster scenario. Our purpose is to consider the impact of different aspects and levels of environmental constraint on the course of future human development. Using the Human Development Index (HDI) and its separate components as our key measures of development, we find that environmental constraints could indeed greatly slow progress and even, in disastrous conditions, begin to reverse it. Least developed countries are most vulnerable in relative terms, while middle-income countries can suffer the greatest absolute impact of constraints, and more developed countries are most resilient. Education’s advance is the aspect of development tapped by the HDI that is most likely to continue even in the face of tightening environmental constraints, and that is one reason why human development shows great momentum even in the face of environmental challenges. View Full-Text
Keywords: human development; international futures; environmental constraints; climate change; educational advance; scenarios human development; international futures; environmental constraints; climate change; educational advance; scenarios

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hughes, B.B.; Irfan, M.T.; Moyer, J.D.; Rothman, D.S.; Solórzano, J.R. Exploring Future Impacts of Environmental Constraints on Human Development. Sustainability 2012, 4, 958-994.

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