Sustainable and Integrated Development—A Critical Analysis
2. The Reality
- (a) The richest 20% of the world’s population had 82% of world export markets; the middle-income 60% had 17% and the poorest 20% hardly 1%,
- (b) The richest 20% had 68% of foreign direct investment; the middle-income 60% had 31% and the poorest 20% hardly 1%,
- (c) The richest 20% included 93.3% of users of the Internet; the middle-income 60% had 6.5% and the poorest 20% only 0.2%,
- (c) the OECD countries, with 19% of the global population, had 71% of global trade in goods and services, 58% of foreign direct investment and 91% of all of Internet users,
- (e) the world’s two hundred richest persons doubled the value of their fortunes in the four years leading up to 1998 to 1 trillion dollars, more, that is to say, than what was owned by 41% of the world’s population.
- More than a quarter of their 4.5 billion residents had no access to knowledge or to minimum private and public services and their life expectancy did not exceed 40 years,
- Roughly 1.3 billion of their population had no access to clean water,
- Roughly 840 million people were undernourished,
- One in seven children did not have elementary education, etc.
- One in eight people in even the richest countries of the world is affected by some of the elements of human poverty, such as long term unemployment, an income below the poverty level, illiteracy, maximum life expectancy of 60 years .
3. The Vision of Integrated Development
4. The Economic Dimension of Integrated Development
- it does not ignore, but proceeds with and contributes to the social, political and cultural development of all persons on earth, with the development and utilization of the technology appropriate for each case, in the specific territory and time,
- it acknowledges the need for protection of nature, of which all people and their cultures are an integral part, and makes this need an axis of initiatives and actions, at the local, regional, national, transnational and global level.
- subordinate nature, litter or pollute the natural, socio-economic, political and cultural environment through the irresponsible competition of markets of "developed" countries,
- manipulate science, research and technology by financing them selectively and only if they produce new marketable and profitable products and services,
- squander the natural and human capital of the planet for the sake of maximum immediate profit,
- alienate human beings through the processes of production,
- corrupt consciences, seduce not only politicians, scientists, artists, movements, trade unions, but also workers and the unemployed, exploiting their ambitions, expectations and their insecurities,
- maintain bonds of poverty, ignorance, bad health, lack of food and clean water for the residents of countries in the third world,
- tend to change active, conscious and responsible citizens into passive and fearful individual consumers, under the threat of permanently increasing unemployment .
5. The Political Dimension of Integrated Development
- it does not ignore, but creatively proceeds with and contributes to economic, social and cultural development,
- it essentially aims at the inclusion, at all levels of political and social life, of all people, as free, educated, informed, emancipated, responsible, conscious citizens, who work, produce, create, think and act, individually and collectively, in a way that the promotion of their interests takes into account the rights of all others,
- it is founded on and secured by public schooling/education/culture, to which all have access, independent of race, gender, nationality, color, age and convictions, in order to be part of society and develop the creative possibilities and dexterities of their mind and body, their critical thought and their political and social consciousness and responsibility .
6. The Social Dimension of Integrated Development
- it adheres to the human values of peace, justice, solidarity, democracy and rule
- it acknowledges the need for protection of nature, of which all people and their cultures are an integral part, and makes this need an axis of initiatives and actions, at the local, regional, national, trans-national and global level,
- it does not ignore but keeps pace with and contributes to the economic, political and cultural development of all persons on the earth,
- it develops and utilizes the technology which is appropriate in each case in space and time.
- limited to “developed” countries only and particularly to the small privileged social classes, in which the relevant (and always ambiguous) “indicators” thrive,
- reconciled with the enormous and permanently expanding and accentuated social inequalities between rich and poor countries, or among social classes within a “developed” or “developing” country.
- Environment-society-economy integration: ensuring that economic development, social development and environmental protection are integrated in planning and implementation
- Futurity: an explicit concern about the impact of current activity on future generations.
- Environmental protection: a commitment to reducing pollution and environmental degradation and to the more efficient use of resources.
- Equity: a commitment to meeting at least the basic needs of all the people of the present generation (as well as equity between generations).
- Quality of life: recognition that human wellbeing is constituted by more than just income growth.
- Participation: the recognition that integrated development requires the political involvement of all groups or ‘stakeholders’ in society .
7. Environment in Sustainable and Worth-Living Integrated Development
- subordination of nature and life,
- continuing human exploitation of other human beings and nature through modern means,
- enforcement of the will of the strongest party over institutionalized or unwritten rules of international law, justice and humanism, through military, economic, political, technological and cultural means,
- devastation of any social class, nation, social, political, ideological or cultural difference or distinction by any self-appointed “new order’ of any type or category,
- state, police or individual terrorism, which finally aims at the abolition or transformation of human, social and political rights, according to the strategic interests of markets, the new order and their globalization,
- the dominant promotion and enforcement - by all means - of the alleged universal salvation ideologies and the attempt to imprint these in the collective subconscious as new “values”, with which all must conform and to which all actions should contribute,
- mass media dominance and apparent or obscure connections with the economy and politics.
Conflict of Interest
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Koroneos, C.J.; Rokos, D. Sustainable and Integrated Development—A Critical Analysis. Sustainability 2012, 4, 141-153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4010141
Koroneos CJ, Rokos D. Sustainable and Integrated Development—A Critical Analysis. Sustainability. 2012; 4(1):141-153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4010141Chicago/Turabian Style
Koroneos, Christopher J., and Dimitri Rokos. 2012. "Sustainable and Integrated Development—A Critical Analysis" Sustainability 4, no. 1: 141-153. https://doi.org/10.3390/su4010141