Next Article in Journal
Ecological Citizens: Identifying Values and Beliefs that Support Individual Environmental Responsibility among Swedes
Next Article in Special Issue
Monitoring Land Use: Capturing Change through an Information Fusion Approach
Previous Article in Journal
The Sustainability of Organic Grain Production on the Canadian Prairies—A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
How Does Car Parking Availability and Public Transport Accessibility Influence Work-Related Travel Behaviors?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2010, 2(4), 1035-1054;

External Costs as Driving Forces of Land Use Changes

University of Applied Sciences, Trier, Environmental Campus Birkenfeld, P.O. Box 1380, D-55761 Birkenfeld, Germany
Received: 23 March 2010 / Revised: 7 April 2010 / Accepted: 15 April 2010 / Published: 19 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Sustainability)
Full-Text   |   PDF [204 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


Land conversion is often not carried out in a sustainable way. The loss of arable land and biodiversity, concern about food security and rising costs of infrastructure due to urban sprawl are just some of the problems under discussion. This paper compares Germany, China and Cambodia. The article points out that, despite huge differences in institutions and governance, unsustainable land use changes mostly have some patterns in common: The beneficiaries of land conversion are often well-organized actors, whereas the costs of land conversion are often shifted to poorly organized groups and to society as a whole. A sustainable land use policy has to look for a better coupling of benefits and costs of land use changes. In order to achieve this goal, the article suggests completing the planning law with a suitable economic framework. View Full-Text
Keywords: land use changes; planning; property tax; financial equalization scheme land use changes; planning; property tax; financial equalization scheme
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Loehr, D. External Costs as Driving Forces of Land Use Changes. Sustainability 2010, 2, 1035-1054.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top